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Table 1 Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (95 % confidence interval) among adults aged 40–79 years

From: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in adults aged 40–79 years in Germany with and without prior coronary heart disease or stroke

Risk factor Total (N = 5101) No CHD or stroke (N = 4489) CHD or stroke (N = 612) P
Daily smoking 19.8 (18–21.7) 20.2 (18.3–22.2) 16.5 (12.4–21.6) 0.200
<2.5 h physical activity/week 82.4 (80.9–83.7) 82.2 (80.7–83.6) 84.1 (79.9–87.6) 0.400
Physically inactive (no physical activity in average week) 34.2 (32.3–36.4) 32.4 (30.3–34.6) 49.8 (44.4–55.3) <0.001
<2 portions fruit/day 66.1 (64.3–67.8) 65.8 (63.9–67.7) 68.1 (63–72.8) 0.400
<2 portions vegetable/day 90.4 (89.2–91.5) 90.1 (88.8–91.3) 92.8 (89.3–95.2) 0.100
<1 portion fish/week 67.3 (65.5–69.1) 66.8 (64.9–68.7) 71.6 (66.5–76.2) 0.100
Alcohol intake > 10 g/day (women) or 20 g/day (men) 17.9 (16.5–19.4) 18 (16.7–19.5) 16.7 (12.9–21.4) 0.600
Alcohol intake = 0 g/day 12.7 (11.3–14.3) 12.4 (10.8–14.2) 15.2 (11.7–19.5) 0.200
Overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) 69.9 (68.2–71.5) 68 (66.3–69.8) 85.1 (81.2–88.3) <0.001
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 28.4 (26.6–30.2) 26.5 (24.8–28.3) 43.1 (37.4–48.9) <0.001
BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg 20.6 (18.9–22.4) 20.7 (18.9–22.5) 20 (16.1–24.5) 0.700
Proportion unawarea among those with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg 33.5 (30.2–37) 36 (32.5–39.7) 12.1 (6.6–21.3) <0.001
Proportion treated and awareb among those with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg 45.4 (41.9–49) 42.5 (38.8–46.3) 70.6 (59.2–79.9) <0.001
Elevated TC (≥5.0 mmol/l) 68.8 (66.5–71) 71.2 (68.9–73.5) 48.9 (43.6–54.1) <0.001
Highly elevated TC (≥6.2 mmol/l) 24.7 (22.9–26.6) 25.9 (23.9–27.9) 15.2 (11.6–19.7) <0.001
Proportion unawarea among those with TC ≥ 5.0 mmol/l 57.5 (55.3–59.7) 59.4 (57–61.7) 35.0 (28.6–42) <0.001
Proportion treated and awareb among those with TC ≥ 5.0 mmol/l 9.1 (8–10.3) 7.5 (6.4–8.7) 28.3 (22.4–35.1) <0.001
  1. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (bold)
  2. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CHD coronary heart disease, TC total cholesterol
  3. adefined as reported diagnosis of hypertension or dyslipidaemia
  4. bdefined as reported diagnosis of hypertension or dyslipidaemia in combination with reported use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs, respectively