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Table 3 Adjusted association of diet quality, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors on childhood overweight or obesity, odds ratio (95 % confidence intervals)

From: The use of a dietary quality score as a predictor of childhood overweight and obesity

N (%) Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Demographic factors Lifestyle factors Parental factor
Overweight 1565 (19.3) Obese 531 (6.6) Overweight Obese Overweight Obese
OR (95 % CI)
DQS Q1 (Highest DQ) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Q2 0.99 (0.79 1.23) 1.33 (0.86 2.04) 0.98 (0.79 1.23) 1.27 (0.83 1.94) 0.92 (0.72 1.17) 1.10 (0.70 1.72)
Q3 1.08 (0.85 1.36) 1.57 (1.03 2.41) 1.07 (0.85 1.36) 1.52 (0.99 2.33) 1.04 (0.80 1.34) 1.31 (0.83 2.06)
Q4 0.95 (0.75 1.20) 1.36 (0.90 2.06) 0.93 (0.74 1.18) 1.23 (0.81 1.88) 0.88 (0.68 1.14) 1.13 (0.72 1.75)
Q5 (Lowest DQ) 1.01 (0.79 1.27) 1.81 (1.21 2.72) 0.99 (0.78 1.25) 1.56 (1.03 2.37) 0.91 (0.71 1.17) 1.32 (0.85 2.04)
Gender Boys 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Girls 1.47 (1.28 1.69) 1.57 (1.24 1.97) 1.43 (1.24 1.65) 1.41 (1.11 1.79) 1.44 (1.24 1.67) 1.39 (1.08 1.79)
Parent education        
Third level 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Non-degree 1.20 (0.97 1.47) 1.88 (1.19 2.96) 1.20 (0.97 1.47) 1.79 (1.13 2.84) 1.15 (0.93 1.43) 2.11 (1.36 3.27)
Higher second level 1.23 (1.01 1.50) 1.92 (1.27 2.90) 1.22 (1.00 1.49) 1.78 (1.17 2.70) 1.20 (0.97 1.47) 2.15 (1.48 3.14)
<= Lower secondary level 1.42 (1.14 1.78) 3.01 (1.98 4.58) 1.41 (1.13 1.77) 2.70 (1.78 4.09) 1.26 (0.99 1.59) 2.78 (1.89 4.10)
Physical Activity 9 days or more    1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
6–8 days    1.06 (0.89 1.26) 1.45 (1.08 1.95) 1.06 (0.89 1.28) 1.47 (1.07 2.02)
3–5 days    1.40 (1.16 1.68) 2.23 (1.63 3.04) 1.38 (1.14 1.67) 2.25 (1.64 3.09)
1–2 days    1.08 (0.77 1.51) 2.51 (1.59 3.96) 1.09 (0.76 1.55) 2.28 (1.38 3.76)
None    1.18 (0.74 1.87) 4.34 (2.54 7.42) 1.20 (0.75 1.92) 4.57 (2.61 8.00)
Television viewing Low    1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate    1.11 (0.93 1.33) 1.51 (1.09 2.11) 1.05 (0.87 1.26) 1.38 (0.97 1.93)
High    1.47 (1.13 1.92) 1.81 (1.16 2.82) 1.38 (1.05 1.83) 1.71 (1.08 2.71)
Parent Body Mass Index category Normal      1.00 1.00
Overweight      1.76 (1.48 2.08) 3.51 (2.52 4.90)
Obese      2.60 (2.12 3.16) 6.48 (4.59 9.14)
  1. Reference categories: child BMI (dependant variable): normal weight, Reference category (independent variables): DQS Q1 (Highest diet quality), gender = Male, parent’s education = third level, PA = 9 days or more PA, T.V. viewing = Low (0 to <1 h), parent’s BMI = normal weight
  2. Model 1 adjusted for child gender and parent’s education, Model 2 adjusted Model 1, child’s PA level, and T.V. viewing, Model 3 adjusted for Models 1 and 2 and parent’s BMI category