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Table 4 Vaccine characteristics and immunisation strategies considered in the models evaluating routine HZ vaccination

From: Systematic review of models assessing the economic value of routine varicella and herpes zoster vaccination in high-income countries

Study Age at vaccination (in years) Vaccine efficacy against HZ Waning or duration of protection Vaccination coveragea Vaccination costs per dose (2010 EUR, German price level)
Annemans et al. [65] 50+ 37.6-63.9 %, age-dependent No waningb 20 % EUR 141.39c
Bilcke et al. [38] 60-85 Age-dependent (values are reported graphically only) Consideration of waning depends on the choice of scenario 30 % EUR 106.95d
Bilcke et al. [30] 50 or 60 77 %e Duration of protection of 7.5 years or lifelong protection 30 % or 70 % EUR 103.38d
Bresse et al. [66] 65+ 18-64 %, age-dependent 4.15 % per year and vaccine efficacy was set to zero after 10 years 20 % EUR 117f
Brisson et al. [67] 50-80 26-75 %, age-dependent No waningb Not specified EUR 108.60
de Boer et al. [40] 60-75 41.2-69.4 %, age-dependent 8.3 % per year (= duration of protection of 12 years) Not specified EUR 89.10d
Edmunds et al. [68] 65 30-70 % Duration of protection of 2.5 years to life long 60 % EUR 122.13d,g
Hornberger et al. [28] 69 Modelled by applying age-specific incidence of HZ in vaccine and placebo-treated arm of the clinical study, age-dependent Duration of protection of 30 years Not specified EUR 43.85-438.46d,h
Moore et al. [69] 50+ 37.6-63.9 %, age-dependent No waningb 40 % EUR 143.28d
Najafzadeh et al. [26] 60+ Modelled by applying age-specific incidence of HZ in vaccine and placebo-treated arm of the clinical study, age-dependent 4.5 % per year Not specified EUR 101.83
Pellissier et al. [70] 60+ 27.1-69.8 %, age-dependent No waningb Not specified EUR 147.32d
Rothberg et al. [42] 60-80 Age-dependent Waning considered but not quantified Not specified EUR 134.74d
Szucs et al. [71] 70-79 37.60-63.9 %, age-dependent No waningb 20 % EUR 143.09d
Ultsch et al. [39] 50-80 13.22-69.8 %, age-dependent 8.3 % per year following 10 years of stable vaccine efficacy 20 % EUR 147.48d
van Hoek et al. [72] 60-75 31-95 % (based on 15 different take and waning scenarios), age-dependent Duration of protection of 3.6-100 years (based on 15 different take and waning scenarios) 73.5 % EUR 88.36d
van Hoek et al. [33] 75 Data from van Hoek et al. [72] Data from van Hoek et al. [72] 70 % EUR 86.37d
van Lier et al. [41] 60-80 Data from van Hoek et al. [72] Duration of protection of 7.5 years 75 % EUR 81.54d
  1. HZ herpes zoster
  2. aIn static models vaccination costs and effects are proportional to vaccination coverage. Hence, the level of coverage has no impact on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio
  3. bBase-case analysis
  4. cIncluding co-payments
  5. dIncluding administration costs
  6. eThis value was assumed for the age group of 60–64 years. The supplemental material of this study also provides values for higher age groups (7-68 %) but no estimate is given for the age group below 60 years
  7. fReimbursement rate was assumed to be 65 % when taking a third-party payer perspective
  8. gCosts of an immunisation course comprising two doses
  9. hIncluding public awareness campaign, patient travel time, time receiving vaccine and costs of treating adverse events