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Table 1 Food establishment and SES characteristics across retail food environment (RFE) categories

From: Diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to food environment sub-types: a cross-sectional analysis of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States Census, and food establishment data

Block group characteristics Healthier options (RFE ratio ≤1.0) Unhealthier options (RFE ratio >1.0)
Block groups (n) 769 2458
Supermarket1 (%) 21.2 ± 17.0 (0–75) 12.8 ± 7.9 (0–40)***
Restaurant (%) 16.9 ± 17.9 (0–77) 23.3 ± 12.7 (0–67)***
Specialty food (%) 14. 7 ± 16.7 (0–75) 6.0 ± 6.0 (0–38)***
Fast food (%) 7.1 ± 9.8 (0–40) 24.2 ± 11.4 (0–67)***
Convenience store (%) 8.8 ± 11.1 (0–40) 18.7 ± 11.8 (0–86)***
Pharmacy (%) 2.5 ± 5.8 (0–40) 6.8 ± 7.4 (0–75)***
Male (%) 49.0 ± 2.7 (31–70) 48.8 ± 3.3 (29–90)*
Age 18 years or older (%) 74.4 ± 6.1 (47–100) 76.5 ± 6.6 (51–100)***
Age 65 years or older (%) 10.7 ± 8.1 (0–83) 10.8 ± 8.1 (0–94)
Female head of household with children (%) 50.6 ± 14.5 (0–100) 50.0 ± 13.8 (0–100)
Rented housing (%) 21.7 ± 23.3 (0–100) 31.8 ± 27.4 (1–100)***
No vehicle in household (%) 2.4 ± 4.4 (0–45) 3.7 ± 4.0 (0–49)***
Employed in management (%) 49.5 ± 15.0 (3–82) 50.0 ± 16.4 (3–93)
Using public assistance (%) 3.1 ± 3.5 (0–23) 3.7 ± 4.0 (0–44)**
Family poverty (%) 3.6 ± 4.2 (0–27) 4.3 ± 5.2 (0–100)**
White race (%) 66.3 ± 26.9 (1–100) 62.3 ± 25.3 (0–99)***
Black race (%) 20.2 ± 25.2 (0–95) 21.3 ± 23.6 (0–98)
Hispanic ethnicity (%) 9.6 ± 12.7 (0–94) 12.5 ± 12.5 (0–90)***
Income (median per 10,000 dollars) 5.4 ± 1.8 (2–12) 5.3 ± 1.8 (0–15)*
  1. Mean ± standard deviation and (range) of block group percentages are presented unless otherwise noted
  2. 1Percentage of food establishments is calculated as number of food establishment (e.g., grocery stores)/total count of food establishments (supermarkets, restaurants, specialty food, fast food, convenience stores, and pharmacies)
  3. *p <0.05, **p <0.01, ***p <0.001 for mean values compared to healthy block groups, using a two-tailed t-test