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Table 4 Multivariate regression predicting tobacco use among males and females in Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi

From: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of tobacco Use in Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi: data from the CARRS study

  Males Females
Variables OR CI p value OR CI p value
Constant       
City       
Chennai® Ref    Ref   
Delhi 1.66 [1.31,2.10] 0.0001 2.85 [1.91,4.26] 0.0001
Karachi 2.11 [1.71,2.59] 0.0001 4.33 [3.01,6.24] 0.0001
Age (centered at mean) 1.01 [1.00,1.02] 0.030 1.05 [1.03,1.06] 0.0001
Age squared 0.99 [1.00,1.00] 0.0001 0.99 [1.00,1.00] 0.055
Education       
Above graduation® Ref    Ref   
Graduate 1.03 [0.70,1.51] 0.873 2.80 [0.30,26.24] 0.364
High/Secondary 1.51 [1.04,2.19] 0.031 8.47 [1.03,69.46] 0.047
No formal education/up to primary 2.67 [1.72,4.15] 0.0001 20.97 [2.53,173.62] 0.005
Occupation       
Not working® Ref    Ref   
Professional 1.01 [0.65,1.57] 0.961 3.58 [1.12,11.40] 0.031
Trained 0.83 [0.58,1.17] 0.279 0.71 [0.19,2.64] 0.603
Skilled 1.06 [0.80,1.41] 0.671 0.93 [0.38,2.24] 0.870
Semi-skilled 1.36 [1.05,1.77] 0.020 0.56 [0.25,1.24] 0.151
Unskilled 1.23 [0.91,1.65] 0.173 1.52 [0.93,2.49] 0.095
Income       
<10000 INR® Ref    Ref   
10000-20000 INR 0.81 [0.65,1.00] 0.052 0.68 [0.46,1.00] 0.051
>20000 INR 0.49 [0.36,0.65] 0.0001 0.37 [0.19,0.71] 0.003
BMI       
<18.0 ® Ref    Ref   
18-22.99 0.50 [0.38,0.67] 0.0001 0.48 [0.27,0.85] 0.013
23-24.99 0.37 [0.26,0.52] 0.0001 0.41 [0.22,0.77] 0.006
> = 25 0.35 [0.26,0.46] 0.0001 0.40 [0.22,0.71] 0.002
Alcohol use       
No® Ref    Ref   
Yes 4.17 [3.52,4.94] 0.060 8.18 [0.91,73.55] 0.911
Diabetes based on FPG & HbA1c values and hx of diabetes  
No diabetes® Ref    Ref   
Known diagnosis diabetes 1.02 [0.80,1.29] 0.904 1.40 [0.89,2.20] 0.140
Newly diagnosed diabetes 1.02 [0.83,1.24] 0.878 0.97 [0.63,1.50] 0.883
Hypertension       
Normotension® Ref    Ref   
Known diagnosis hypertension 0.87 [0.69,1.09] 0.208 0.91 [0.65,1.28] 0.580
Newly diagnosed hypertension 0.90 [0.76,1.06] 0.204 0.89 [0.67,1.19] 0.435
Dyslipidemia       
No dyslipidemia® Ref    Ref   
Known diagnosis dyslipidemia 0.71 [0.41,1.22] 0.212 0.39 [0.16,0.93] 0.034
Newly diagnosed dyslipidemia 1.09 [0.94,1.27] 0.227 1.09 [0.83,1.44] 0.518
Adjusted Wald test for all parameters F(24,69) = 24.10, p < 0.0001 F(24,68) = 10.71, p < 0.0001