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Table 3 Bivariate analyses examining tobacco use among males and females in Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi

From: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of tobacco Use in Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi: data from the CARRS study

  Male tobacco users Female tobacco users
Variable % 95 % CI P value % 95 % CI P value
City    0.454    0.0001
Chennai 40.9 [38.3, 43.5]   3.2 [2.6, 4.1]  
Delhi 40.6 [35.9, 45.5]   7.0 [5.3, 9.1]  
Karachi 42.5 [39.5, 45.5]   13.1 [10.4, 16.3]  
Age group    0.0001    0.0001
20-24 29.1 [24.7, 34.0]   3.4 [2.1, 5.6]  
25-34 44.1 [40.4, 47.8]   3.4 [2.2, 5.2]  
35-44 46.1 [42.8, 49.5]   6.4 [4.9, 8.4]  
45-54 44.2 [40.3, 48.2]   9.3 [7.5, 11.5]  
55-64 36.9 [33.7, 40.2]   10.6 [8.6, 13.0]  
>65 28.5 [23.2, 34.3]   13.2 [9.7, 17.7]  
Education    0.0001    0.0001
Above graduation 19.8 [16.1, 24.2]   0.4 [0.0, 2.5]  
Graduate 22.5 [19.4, 25.9]   1.4 [0.8, 2.7]  
High school/Secondary 43.3 [40.8, 45.8]   4.0 [3.2, 5.0]  
No formal education/up to primary 57.7 [54.4, 61.1]   14.9 [13.1, 16.9]  
Occupation    0.0001    0.009
Not working 32.4 [28.7, 36.4]   7.0 [5.9, 8.2]  
Professional 25.9 [21.3, 31.0]   5.9 [1.9, 16.9]  
Trained 27.3 [24.1, 30.8]   2.0 [0.4, 9.5]  
Skilled 40.8 [37.4, 44.2]   4.7 [2.6, 8.2]  
Semi-skilled 51.3 [47.8, 54.7]   5.5 [3.0, 9.7]  
Unskilled 56.5 [52.6, 60.3]   9.3 [6.5, 13.1]  
Income    0.0001    0.0001
<10000 INR 46.4 [44.2, 48.7]   7.9 [6.7, 9.3]  
10000-20000 INR 33.5 [30.1, 37.1]   5.1 [3.8, 6.8]  
>20000 INR 21.8 [18.6, 25.2]   1.8 [1.1, 2.9]  
BMI (Kg/m2)    0.0001    0.0001
<18.0 62.5 [56.5, 68.2]   14.3 [8.7, 22.7]  
18-22.99 45.1 [41.9, 48.2]   7.1 [5.7, 8.9]  
23-24.99 37.5 [33.1, 42.0]   6.8 [5.2, 8.9]  
> = 25 34.6 [32.1, 37.2]   5.7 [4.7, 6.9]  
Alcohol use    0.0001    0.013
Noncurrent alcohol user 31.7 [29.5, 33.9]   6.9 [5.8, 8.0]  
Current alcohol user 62.4 [59.2, 65.5]   34.7 [8.3, 75.8]  
Diabetes based on FPG & HbA1c values and hx of diabetes 0.0001    0.056
No/prediabetes 41.6 [39.4, 43.8]   6.0 [4.9, 7.4]  
Known diabetes 33.7 [30.3, 37.3]   9.1 [6.5, 12.6]  
Newly diagnosed diabetes 37.2 [33.8, 40.7]   6.5 [4.9, 8.6]  
Hypertension    0.0001    0.001
No hypertension 42.5 [39.9, 45.1]   6.1 [5.0, 7.4]  
Known hypertension 31.2 [27.7, 34.9]   9.4 [7.6, 11.6]  
Newly diagnosed hypertension 42.9 [39.9, 45.9]   8.1 [6.5, 10.1]  
Dyslipidemia    0.001    0.218
No dyslipidemia 40.5 [38.4, 42.7]   6.1 [5.0, 7.5]  
Known dyslipidemia 24.0 [17.8, 31.5]   5.6 [3.1, 10.0]  
Newly diagnosed dyslipidemia 40.0 [37.2, 42.8]   7.3 [6.1, 8.7]  
  1. Note: P-values yielded by Pearson Chi-square test