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Table 3 Association between covariates and current smoking and smoking cessation pre- and during-GFC

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study

  Current smoking Smoking cessation
  Pre-GFC During-GFC p-value for interaction [a] Pre-GFC During-GFC p-value for interaction [a]
Time (in years) 0.97 [0.96-0.99] 0.97 [0.89-1.05] 0.934 1.02 [1.00-1.04] 1.09 [1.05-1.13] 0.001
Age       
18 – 30 years of age 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00  
31 – 44 years of age 0.90 [0.84-0.97] 0.89 [0.81-0.97] 0.817 1.60 [1.45-1.76] 1.46 [1.31-1.62] 0.209
45 – 64 years of age 0.76 [0.71-0.81] 0.74 [0.69-0.80] 0.688 2.81 [2.57-3.08] 2.49 [2.25-2.75] 0.068
>64 years of age 0.27 [0.25-0.30] 0.25 [0.22-0.27] 0.085 6.94 [6.23-7.73] 7.49 [6.64-8.44] 0.336
Gender       
Male 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00  
Female 0.65 [0.62-0.68] 0.69 [0.65-0.73] 0.090 1.32 [1.25-1.40] 1.18 [1.11-1.26] 0.009
Ethnicity       
Ethnic Dutch 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00  
Western minorities 1.17 [1.08-1.28] 0.99 [0.89-1.10] 0.014 0.85 [0.76-0.94] 1.10 [0.98-1.24] 0.001
Non-western minorities 0.70 [0.63-0.78] 0.70 [0.60-0.82] 0.957 0.79 [0.68-0.92] 0.86 [0.70-1.06] 0.484
Household composition       
Couple, with children 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00  
Couple, no children 1.18 [1.11-1.25] 1.12 [1.05-1.20] 0.479 0.97 [0.90-1.03] 1.07 [0.99-1.15] 0.937
Single, with children 1.71 [1.59-1.84] 1.60 [1.48-1.73] 0.290 0.52 [0.48-0.57] 0.61 [0.55-0.67] 0.562
Single, no children 1.76 [1.57-1.96] 1.85 [1.63-2.10] 0.255 0.55 [0.47-0.63] 0.53 [0.46-0.62] 0.417
Other 1.51 [1.21-1.89] 1.68 [1.37-2.06] 0.741 0.60 [0.45-0.80] 0.59 [0.46-0.77] 0.978
Education level    0.351    0.535
High 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00  
Middle 1.54 [1.44-1.64] 1.61 [1.49-1.74] 0.354 0.72 [0.66-0.78] 0.68 [0.62-0.74] 0.347
Low 2.09 [1.95-2.24] v2.20 [2.05-2.37] 0.305 0.53 [0.49-0.58] 0.51 [0.47-0.55] 0.449
Household income    0.939    0.252
High 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00  
Middle 1.17 [1.10-1.24] 1.23 [1.15-1.32] 0.254 0.89 [0.83-0.96] 0.83 [0.77-0.90] 0.174
Low 1.34 [1.25-1.42] 1.34 [1.25-1.44] 0.897 0.78 [0.73-0.84] 0.73 [0.68-0.80] 0.246
Neighbourhood deprivation    0.210    0.383
Non-deprived 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00  
Next-most-deprived 1.20 [1.10-1.30] 1.26 [1.14-1.39] 0.414 0.86 [0.78-0.94] 0.86 [0.77-0.97] 0.935
Most-deprived 1.21 [1.06-1.38] 1.33 [1.14-1.55] 0.316 0.89 [0.76-1.04] 0.77 [0.64-0.93] 0.230
  1. [a] The p-value at the same row as the variable name refers to the test on the overall interaction between period and this variable (measured on a continuous scale).