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Table 2 Anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary characteristics among prostate cancer cases and controls

From: The feasibility of epidemiological research on prostate cancer in African men in Ibadan, Nigeria

Lifestyle characteristics Cases (n = 50) Controls (n = 50) P OR* 95% CI
Height (cm); mean sd 163.02 9.6 168.87 6.89 0.001 0.91 0.86 0.97
Weight (kg); mean sd 67.84 12.10 72.35 11.85 0.06 0.97 0.94 1.00
Waist size (cm); mean SD 80.44 9.33 88.92 10.53 <0.0001 0.91 0.87 0.96
Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) mean sd 25.68 0.68 25.33 0.51 0.69 1.02 0.93 1.12
BMI category; n %         
    <25 21 42.0 25 50.0 0.72 1.00 -  
    25 - 29.9 21 42.0 18 36.0   1.39 0.59 3.28
    ≥30 8 16.0 7 14.0   1.35 0.42 4.36
Weight change ≥5 kg in last year      <0.0001    
    No change 21 42.0 41 82.0   1.00 -  
    Increased 3 6.0 1 2.0   6.08 0.59 62.59
    Decreased 26 52.0 8 16.0   6.78 2.56 7.97
Moderate physical activity; n %      0.24    
    Never or 1–3 times / month 13 26.0 19 38.0   1.00 -  
    1- 6 times / week 13 26.0 15 30.0   1.26 0.45 3.57
    Every day 24 48.0 16 32.0   2.19 0.85 5.67
Cigarette smoking status, n %      0.32    
    Never smoker 29 58.0 33 66.0   1.00   
    Former smoker Quit ≤ 27 years‡ 11 22.0 7 14.0   1.79 0.61 5.23
    Quit > 27 years‡ 10 20.0 7 14.0   1.67 0.56 5.00
    Current smoker - - 2 4.0   -   
Pack-years of smoking, n %      0.65    
    Non-Smoker 29 58.0 33 66.0   1.00 -  
    1-9.9 12 24.0 9 18.0   1.46 0.54 3.95
    ≥10 6 12.0 7 14.0   0.94 0.28 3.10
Alcohol consumption, n %      <0.0001    
    Never user 7 14.0 19 38.0   1.00 -  
    Former user 39 78.0 20 40.0   5.20 1.86 14.56
    Current user 3 6.0 10 20.0   0.82 0.16 3.84
    Missing 1 2.0 1 2.0     
Years since stopped drinking (former users); mean sd 16.57 2.17 26.68 2.91 0.008 0.94 0.89 0.98
Drinks/week (current and former users); mean sd 1.27 0.92 3.91 5.41 0.014 0.72 0.49 1.06
Dietary intake n % n % P OR* 95% CI
Red meat, n %      0.72    
    Never 8 16.0 7 14.0   1.00 -  
    1- 3 times/month 7 14.0 11 22.0   0.56 0.14 2.30
    1- 4 times/week 18 36.0 16 32.0   0.99 0.28 3.43
    ≥1 times/day 16 32.0 16 32.0   0.88 0.25 3.04
Pork, n %      0.40    
    Never 48 96.0 46 92.0   1.00 -  
    1- 3 times/month 2 4.0 4 8.0   0.48 0.08 2.75
Chicken, n %      0.15    
    Never 16 32.0 7 14.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 20 40.0 25 50.0   0.35 0.12 1.01
    1 - 4 times/week 14 28.0 17 34.0   0.36 0.12 1.12
Smoked foods, n %      0.24    
    Never 8 16.0 7 14.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 9 18.0 18 36.0   0.44 0.12 1.59
    1 - 4 times/week 27 54.0 20 40.0   1.18 0.37 3.80
    ≥1 times/day 6 12.0 5 10.0   1.05 0.22 5.02
Fish, n %      0.68    
    1- 3 times/month 5 10.0 4 8.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 4 times/week 27 54.0 24 48.0   1.14 0.29 4.45
    ≥1 times/day 18 36.0 21 42.0   0.86 0.21 3.45
Vegetables, n %       0.07    
    1-3 times/month 4 8.0 4 8.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 4 times/week 24 48.0 13 26.0   1.89 0.40 8.90
    ≥1 times/day 22 44.0 33 66.0   0.68 0.15 3.01
Fruits, n %      0.80    
    Never 4 8.0 3 6.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 6 12.0 5 10.0   0.89 0.13 6.12
    1 - 4 times/week 25 50.0 30 60.0   0.62 0.13 3.05
    ≥1 times/day 15 30.0 12 24.0   0.93 0.17 5.01
Saturated fats, n %      0.08    
    Never 42 84.0 33 66.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 3 6.0 10 20.0   0.23 0.06 0.92
    1 - 4 times/week 5 10.0 7 14.0   0.56 0.16 1.92
Oils (olive, canola), n %      0.003    
    Never 17 34.0 8 16.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 7 14.0 6 12.0   0.55 0.14 2.18
    1 - 4 times/week 18 36.0 11 22.0   0.77 0.25 2.38
    ≥1 times/day 8 16.0 25 50.0   0.15 0.05 0.48
Fried food, n %      0.26    
    Never 7 14.0 7 14.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 7 14.0 13 26.0   0.54 0.13 2.17
    1 - 4 times/week 31 62.0 22 44.0   1.41 0.43 4.61
    ≥1 times/day 5 10.0 8 16.0   0.63 0.14 2.91
Carbohydrates/Pastry, n %      0.69    
    0 - 3 times/month 1 2.0 2 4.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 4 times/week 6 12.0 8 16.0   1.51 0.11 0.85
    ≥1 times/day 43 86.0 40 80.0   2.15 0.19 24.66
Milk / Yogurt, n %      0.07    
    Never 10 20.0 10 20.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 7 14.0 13 26.0   0.54 0.15 1.93
    1 - 4 times/week 26 52.0 14 28.0   1.86 1.62 5.53
    ≥1 times/day 7 14.0 13 26.0   0.54 0.15 1.92
Carbonated drinks, n %      0.24    
    Never 25 50.0 24 48.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 10 20.0 16 32.0   0.60 0.23 1.58
    1 - 4 times/week 14 28.0 10 20.0   1.34 0.50 3.60
Coffee/Tea, n %      0.49    
    Never 21 42.0 15 30.0   1.00 -  
    1 - 3 times/month 5 10.0 7 14.0   0.51 0.13 1.92
    1 - 4 times/week 13 26.0 11 22.0   0.84 0.30 2.39
    ≥1 times/day 11 22.0 16 32.0   0.49 0.17 1.36
  1. *OR and 95% CI were estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age; OR = 1.00 refers to the reference category.
  2. OR and 95% CI for these variables are expressed per one unit increase.
  3. The cutoff point for years of quitting smoking was based on the median in controls (27 years).