Skip to main content

Table 5 Primary and sensitivity analyses: correlation between MVPA and total direct costs

From: The association between physical activity and healthcare costs in children – results from the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies

Type of analysis Total direct costs (yes) (f.s.) Total direct costs (Amount) (s.s.)
Odds [95% CI] Exp(Estimate) [95% CI]
Primary analysis model, Ref: < 7 h/week MVPA 1.00 1.00
≥7 h/week MVPA1 0.95 [0.76-1.19] 0.99 [0.88-1.12]
SAM 1: Exclusion of high utilization, Ref: < 7 h/week MVPA 1.00 1.00
≥7 h/week MVPA1 0.95 [0.76-1.19] 1.05 [0.93-1.18]
SAM 2: four-level MVPA variable, Ref: < 3.5 h/week MVPA 1.00 1.00
≥3.5 and < 7 h/week MVPA 1.04 [0.68-1.59] 1.12 [0.89-1.41]
≥7 and < 10.5 h/week MVPA 0.92 [0.61-1.40] 0.90 [0.72-1.13]
≥10.5 h/week MVPA 1.01 [0.68-1.51] 1.18 [0.95-1.47]
SAM 3: plus Interaction MVPA & gender, Ref: < 7 h/week MVPA 1.00 1.00
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if gender female 0.94 [0.69-1.28] 1.31 [1.10-1.55]**
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if gender male 0.96 [0.69-1.32] 0.77 [0.64-0.91]**
SAM 4: plus Interaction MVPA & BMI, Ref: < 7 h/week MVPA 1.00 1.00
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if normal weight 0.96 [0.76-1.23] 0.99 [0.86-1.13]
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if severely underweight 1.21 [0.22-6.76] 2.08 [0.98-4.45]
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if underweight 0.91 [0.36-2.29] 2.09 [1.29-3.38]**
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if overweight, not obese 0.89 [0.31-2.54] 1.09 [0.64-1.86]
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if obese 0.65 [0.06-6.78] 1.65 [0.71-3.83]
Effect of ≥ 7 h/week MVPA if BMI information missing 0.77 [0.26-2.29] 0.19 [0.10-0.37]***
  1. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index CI: confidence interval; Exp(Estimate): exponential function of l’beta estimate for costs; f.s.: first step of the model (logistic regression); h: hours; MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity; Odds: odds ratio estimates for costs; PA: physical activity; %: percentage; Ref: reference category; SAM: sensitivity analysis model; s.s.: second step of the model (overall generalized linear mixed regression).
  2. ***/**/*, values nominally significant at the 0.1%/1%/5% level (without adjustment for multiple testing).
  3. Model information:
  4. 1effect of respectively higher MVPA (≥7 h/week) for both sexes compared with reference category lower MVPA (<7 h/week).
  5. all SAMs were calculated using covariates of the primary analysis; number of observations vary in data sets and between steps of the regression model:
  6. f.s.: primary analysis, SAM2, SAM3, SAM4 (N = 3356), SAM1 (N = 3355).
  7. s.s.: primary analysis, SAM2, SAM3, SAM4 (N = 2913), SAM1 (N = 2912).