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Table 5 Intake of energy, macronutrients and selected food groups in snacks a eaten at different locations (n = 1661)

From: The contribution of snacks to dietary intake and their association with eating location among Norwegian adults – results from a cross-sectional dietary survey

  Home Visiting private households Workb Restaurantc Travel/meetingd
Number (%) of snacks (n = 5876 snacks) consumed in each location 3396 (58%) 336 (6%) 1376 (23%) 195 (3%) 573 (10%)
Number (%) of participants consuming ≥1 snack in this location (n = 1661) 1438 (87%) 258 (16%) 745 (45%) 154 (9%) 394 (24%)
Energy and macronutrients Meane 95% CI Meane 95% CI pf Meane 95% CI pf Meane 95% CI pf Meane 95% CI pf
Energy, MJ/snack 1.0 1.0,1.0 1.7 1.6,1.9 <0.001 0.7 0.7,0.8 <0.001 1.3 1.2,1.5 <0.001 1.0 0.9,1.1 0.97
Protein, E% 10 10,10 9 8,10 0.012 11 10,12 0.005 10 9,11 0.76 10 9,11 0.70
Fat, E% 23 22,23 30 28,33 <0.001 19 18,21 <0.001 29 26,33 <0.001 23 21,25 0.62
Carbohydrates, E% 59 58,60 52 50,55 <0.001 64 63,66 <0.001 44 42,47 <0.001 62 60,64 0.008
Added sugars, E% 15 14,16 22 19,24 <0.001 10 9,11 <0.001 16 14,19 0.37 19 17,22 0.001
Fiber, g/MJ 4.1 3.9,4.2 2.4 2.0,2.7 <0.001 6.0 5.7,6.3 <0.001 1.5 1.1,1.9 <0.001 3.9 3.5,4.4 0.55
Alcohol, E% 5 5,6 7 4,9 0.25 0 0,1 <0.001 15 11,19 <0.001 2 0,3 <0.001
Food groupsg % % ph % ph % ph % ph
Cakes, % of snacks including 12 43 <0.001 10 0.68 29 <0.001 20 <0.001
Fruits, % of snacks including 37 27 0.003 49 <0.001 12 <0.001 35 0.81
Sugar/sweets, % of snacks including 27 34 0.023 20 <0.001 26 0.44 30 0.20
Bread, % of snacks including 12 13 0.44 19 <0.001 15 0.11 12 0.91
Alcoholic beverages, % of snacks including 9 12 0.06 0 <0.001 27 <0.001 4 <0.001
  1. MJ, mega joule; E%, percentage of energy.
  2. aOnly snacks ≥50 kJ are included.
  3. bWork and school, including school/work canteens
  4. cRestaurant, fast food outlet, café
  5. dTravel, meeting, during exercise
  6. eMeans adjusted for gender, age group, BMI, educational level, interest in a healthy diet, smoking habits, weekday/weekend day, normal day or not with regard to food and beverage intake and whether the participant was an under-reporter of energy intake on the day the snack was consumed.
  7. fLinear mixed models with bootstrap; the eating location “home” is used as a reference.
  8. g“cakes” include buns, muffins, waffles, cookies, cream cakes and other cakes, “fruits” include fresh fruits and berries, “sugar/sweets” include sugars, syrup, honey, chocolates, and sweets, “bread” includes regular bread, rolls, crisp bread, crackers and tortillas.
  9. hLogistic mixed models; the eating location “home” is used as a reference.
  10. Due to multiple comparisons, the significance level was set to p < 0.004.