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Table 4 Association of alcohol drinking frequency with background characteristics of women (N = 861)

From: Consumption and drinking frequency of alcoholic beverage among women in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Unadjusted Adjusted
None (vs. Once) 2-3 times (vs. Once) ≥4 times (vs. Once) None (vs. Once) 2-3 times (vs. Once) ≥4 times (vs. Once)
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Marital status       
Never married 1 1 1 1 1 1
Married/cohabiting 0.59 (0.41, 0.88)* 1.77 (1.11, 2.81)* 1.79 (0.88, 3.69) 0.85 (0.55, 1.33) 1.63 (0.97, 2.73) 1.61 (0.73, 3.57)
Divorced/Separated/Windowed 0.64 (0.37, 1.12) 1.35 (0.72, 2.55) 1.80 (0.72, 4.51) 0.61 (0.33, 1.12) 1.30 (0.67, 2.54) 1.76 (0.65, 4.73)
Residence       
Urban 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rural 0.42 (0.30, 0.58)* 2.05 (1.41, 2.96)* 2.48 (1.38, 4.45)* 0.86 (0.51, 1.45) 1.53 (0.88, 2.66) 1.5 (0.62, 4.02)
Region       
Western 1 1 1 1 1 1
Central 5.00 (1.86,13.44)* 1.67 (0.49, 5.61) 4.17 (0.69, 24.94) 5.34(1.94,14.70)* 1.52(0.45,5.22) 3.77 (0.60, 23.71)
Greater Accra 2.57 (1.14, 5.77)* 1.03 (0.40, 2.67) 2.07 (0.43, 10.05) 3.10 (1.27, 7.55)* 1.42(0.49,4.09) 6.19(1.03,37.19)*
Volta 0.49 (0.19, 1.26) 1.45 (0.57, 3.68) 0.91 (0.16, 5.07) 0.55 (0.18, 1.66) 0.92 (0.29, 2.91) 0.92 (0.12, 6.92)
Eastern 2.22 (0.85, 5.83) 3.19 (1.15, 8.91)* 3.89 (0.71, 21.19) 3.36 (1.20, 9.36)* 3.09(1.03,9.27)* 3.89 (0.64, 23.59)
Ashanti 2.23 (0.94, 5.28) 1.57 (0.59, 4.18) 1.14 (0.19, 6.80) 2.10 (0.87, 5.07) 1.60 (0.59, 4.37) 1.21 (0.19, 7.68)
Brong Ahafo 3.09 (1.06, 9.04)* 2.00 (0.58, 6.91) 1.00(0.08,12.39) 4.04(1.28,12.71)* 1.47(0.39,5.57) 0.62 (0.04, 9.08)
Northern 1.21 (0.48, 3.07) 2.50 (0.95, 6.55) 4.67 (0.96, 22.79) 1.96 (0.56, 6.92) 0.98 (0.27, 3.59) 3.21 (0.39, 26.59)
Upper East 0.10 (0.03, 0.39)* 1.29 (0.51, 3.31) 0.93 (0.17, 5.16) 0.18 (0.36, 0.94)* 0.84(0.23,3.11) 0.53 (0.06, 5.11)
Upper West 0.69 (0.28, 1.65) 2.66 (1.09, 6.49)* 4.75(1.04,21.72)* 1.31 (0.38, 4.48) 1.73 (0.49, 6.08) 2.45 (0.31, 19.61)
Education       
No education 1 1 1 1 1 1
Primary 1.83 (1.11, 3.03)* 0.92 (0.59, 1.42) 1.63 (0.93, 2.87) 1.17 (0.65, 2.11) 1.09 (0.66, 1.81) 2.28 (1.17, 4.42)*
Secondary/Higher 3.20 (2.16, 4.76)* 0.63 (0.44, 0.92)* 0.44 (0.24, 0.81)* 1.39 (0.79, 2.46) 1.01 (0.60, 1.69) 0.82 (0.36, 1.86)
Ethnicity       
Akan 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ga/Dangme 0.44 (0.25, 0.78)* 0.81 (0.42, 1.56) 1.06 (0.43, 2.64) 0.39 (0.20, 0.77)* 0.71 (0.32, 1.57) 0.52 (0.17, 1.55)
Ewe/Guan 0.44 (0.28, 0.69)* 1.17 (0.71, 1.92) 0.72 (0.31, 1.65) 1.02 (0.53, 1.97) 1.35 (0.62, 2.94) 0.59 (0.19, 1.89)
Mole-Dagbani 0.19 (0.11, 0.30)* 1.19 (0.76, 1.88) 1.59 (0.84, 3.02) 0.79 (0.31, 2.03) 1.11 (0.42, 2.92) 1.30 (0.29, 5.67)
Grussi/Gruma/ Mande 0.39 (0.23, 0.68)* 2.31 (1.38, 3.88)* 1.88 (0.88, 4.03) 1.17 (0.44, 3.10) 2.28 (0.87, 6.011) 0.95 (0.22, 4.22)
Wealth       
Poor 1 1 1 1 1 1
Middle 3.69 (2.22, 6.14)* 0.84 (0.49, 1.44) 0.84 (0.39, 1.79) 2.26 (1.21, 4.20)* 1.08 (0.58, 1.99) 1.11 (0.46, 2.71)
Rich 3.18 (2.21, 4.57)* 0.52 (0.36, 0.76)* 0.33 (0.18, 0.62)* 1.50 (0.81, 2.78) 0.93 (0.51, 1.70) 0.42 (0.15, 1.17)
Employment (past 12 months)       
Not employed 1 1 1 1 1 1
Employed 0.88 (0.58, 1.34) 1.43 (0.89, 2.29) 2.56 (1.06, 6.14)* 1.25(0.77, 2.01) 1.19 (0.71, 2.02) 2.59(1.01, 6.62)*
  1. OR - Crude odds ratio; AOR - Adjusted odds ratio; CI- Confidence Interval; vs - versus *: p < 0.05.