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Table 5 Current cigar smoking and oral cancer by inhalation level, cigars per day, and duration

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Duration (years) Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   2.12 (0.43, 6.18) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   8.51 (3.66, 16.77) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   15.94 (8.71, 26.75) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   4.39 (0.06, 24.45) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   13.73 (5.50, 28.30) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   1 to 2   0 (0.00, 0.00) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   3+   7.6 (2.90, 19.60) HR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    6.98 (4.13, 11.03) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    7.83 (1.57, 22.88) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   27.88 (5.60, 81.46) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    3.27 (0.66, 9.56) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    8.75 (1.76, 25.58) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   24.19 (2.72, 87.32) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II No inhalation   3.2 (0.90, 11.00) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II Inhalation    6.5 (1.40, 29.20) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    <25 0 (0.00, 0.00) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    25+ 4.6 (1.60, 13.00) HR Primary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.