Skip to main content

Table 18 Current cigar smoking and bladder cancer by inhalation level, cigars per day, and duration

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Duration (years) Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   0.78 (0.29, 1.71) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   1.68 (0.77, 3.18) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   2.03 (0.97, 3.73) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   1.02 (0.20, 2.97) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   2.36 (0.76, 5.50) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   0.32 (0.00, 1.80) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   1 to 2   0 (0.00, 0.00) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   3+   1.9 (0.80, 4.40) HR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    1.57 (1.00, 2.36) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   1.52 (0.02, 8.44) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    0.77 (0.21, 1.98) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    2.87 (0.58, 8.40) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   1.45 (0.16, 5.25) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II No inhalation   0.5 (0.10, 2.10) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II Inhalation    3.6 (1.30, 9.90) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    <25 0 (0.00, 0.00) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    25+ 1.1 (0.40, 2.70) HR Primary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.