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Table 1 Selected prospective studies of cigar smoking and mortality

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Author Publication year Country Cohort name Follow-up Total participants Total current cigar and/pipe smokers Age range Effect measure reported
Kahn [28] 1966 US Dorn study 1954-1957 to 1962 248,195 N/A 31 to 84 SMR
Best [15] 1966 Canada Canadian Study of Smoking and Health 1956 to 1962 92,000 1,594 30 to 90 SMR
Cole [19] 1974 Denmark   1958 to 1972 183 N/A 55 to 64 Calculated IRR
Gordon [36] 1974 US Framingham 1948-1953 to 1966-1970 2,336 311 29 to 62 Calculated IRR
Doll [22] 1976 UK Male British Doctors 1951 to 1971 34,440 N/A 20 and older Calculated SMR
Jajich [27] 1984 US Cook County, IL 1965 to 1970 2,674 265 (18 females) 65 to 74 IRR
Carstensen [17] 1987 Sweden Swedish Census Cohort 1963 to 1979 25,129 N/A 18 to 69 SMR
Sandler [29] 1989 US Washington, County, MD 1963 to 1975 46,926 1,671 (10 females) 25 and older IRR, 95% CI
Hsing [25] 1990 US Dorn study 1954-1957 to 1980 249,829 N/A 31 to 84 IRR, 95% CI
Strachan [34] 1991 UK Nested case–control within Whitehall study cohort 1967-1969 to 1987 18,403 N/A 40 to 64 years OR, 95% CI
Lange [30] 1992 Denmark Copenhagen City Heart Study 1976 to 1989 14,214 808 (770 females) 20 and older HR, 95% CI
Chow [21] 1992 US Lutheran Brotherhood Insurance Society 1966 to 1986 17,818 N/A 35 years and older IRR, 95% CI
Chow [20] 1993 US Dorn study 1954-1957 to 1980 248,046 N/A 31 to 84 IRR, 95% CI
Ben-Shlomo [16] 1994 UK Whitehall study 1967-1969 to 1987 19,018 763 40 to 69 Calculated IRR
Heineman [24] 1995 US Dorn study 1954-1957 to 1980 248,046 N/A 31 to 84 IRR, 95% CI
Haheim [23] 1996 Finland Oslo study 1972 to 1992 16,173 1,623 40 to 49 HR, 95% CI
Wald [35] 1997 UK British United Provident Association 1975-1982 to 1993 21,520 1,831 35 to 64 HR, 95% CI
Shanks [31] 1998 US CPS-I 1959-1960 to 1972 442,455 15,191 (primary) 30 and older IRR, 95% CI
Jacobs [26] 1999 US CPS-II 1982 to 1991 121,278 6,914 30 years or older HR, 95% CI
Shapiro [33] 2000 US CPS-II 1982 to 1994 508,353 7,888 30 years or older HR, 95% CI
Chao [18] 2002 US CPS-II 1982 to 1996 467,788 6,945 30 years or older HR, 95% CI
Shaper [32] 2003 UK British Regional Heart Study 1978-1989 to 2000 7,121 730 40 to 59 HR, 95% CI