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Table 3 multivariate analysis of factors associated with multimorbidity according to three definitions

From: Prevalence of measured and reported multimorbidity in a representative sample of the Swiss population

  Definition A Definition B Definition C
Gender    
Woman 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Man 0.55 (0.47 - 0.64) 0.61 (0.53 - 0.71) 0.51 (0.42 - 0.61)
Age group    
35-44 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
45-54 1.59 (1.33 - 1.91) 1.24 (1.05 - 1.45) 1.73 (1.39 - 2.17)
55-64 2.45 (2.03 - 2.95) 1.44 (1.21 - 1.71) 2.52 (2.01 - 3.16)
65+ 6.91 (4.28 - 11.1) 2.31 (1.43 - 3.71) 3.36 (2.01 - 5.62)
p-value for trend <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Education    
Primary 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Apprenticeship 0.84 (0.67 - 1.04) 1.00 (0.81 - 1.24) 0.81 (0.63 - 1.05)
High school/college 0.77 (0.61 - 0.96) 0.98 (0.79 - 1.22) 0.76 (0.58 - 0.99)
University 0.82 (0.64 - 1.04) 0.99 (0.79 - 1.24) 0.68 (0.50 - 0.91)
p-value for trend 0.11 0.99 <0.05
Receiving social help    
No 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Yes 2.40 (1.97 - 2.92) 1.92 (1.56 - 2.35) 2.74 (2.19 - 3.41)
Born in Switzerland    
No 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Yes 1.27 (1.09 - 1.49) 1.29 (1.11 - 1.49) 1.41 (1.17 - 1.71)
Smoking    
Never 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Former 1.54 (1.30 - 1.84) 1.69 (1.44 - 1.98) 1.55 (1.26 - 1.91)
Current 1.51 (1.26 - 1.80) 1.79 (1.51 - 2.11) 1.51 (1.21 - 1.87)
p-value for trend <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
BMI status    
Normal 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Overweight 1.33 (1.11 - 1.59) 0.94 (0.80 - 1.11) 1.10 (0.88 - 1.38)
Obese 2.18 (1.63 - 2.92) 1.41 (1.06 - 1.88) 7.53 (5.40 - 10.5)
p-value for trend <0.001 0.16 <0.001
Abdominal obesity    
No 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
Yes 1.16 (0.93 - 1.45) 1.22 (0.98 - 1.51) 1.24 (0.96 - 1.60)
  1. Results are expressed as Odds ratio and (95% confidence interval). BMI, body mass index. Definitions A and B based on [12]. Definition C based on the Functional Comorbidity Index [17]. For more details, please consult Additional file 1: Table S1. Statistical analysis by multivariate logistic regression adjusting simultaneously for all parameters indicated.