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Table 3 Summary of multilevel binary logistic regression analysis for social factors associated with children’s attitudes towards smoking

From: Influence of family and friend smoking on intentions to smoke and smoking-related attitudes and refusal self-efficacy among 9–10 year old children from deprived neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

Attitude item Bad for health Not safe to smoke year or two Difficult to quit once started Others smoke is harmful to you Effects sports performance Makes no difference to your weight
Predictor OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Boys
Mother smoking 0.87 (0.50,1.54) 0.64 0.69 (0.47, 1.01) 0.05 0.75 (0.51, 1.09) 0.13 1.18 (0.78, 1.80) 0.44 1.36 (0.91, 2.04) 0.14 1.28 (0.88, 1.85) 0.19
Father smoking 0.68 (0.39, 1.17) 0.16 1.18 (0.82, 1.71) 0.37 0.96 (0.67, 1.37) 0.81 1.15 (0.77, 1.73) 0.48 1.02 (0.69, 1.50) 0.92 0.91 (0.64, 1.29) 0.59
Sibling smoking 0.45 (0.21, 0.98) 0.04* 0.95 (0.52, 1.76) 0.88 1.11 (0.60, 2.05) 0.74 1.85 (0.93, 3.69) 0.08 0.67 (0.35, 1.28) 0.23 1.19 (0.66, 2.14) 0.57
Friend smoking 0.38 (0.21, 0.69) <0.01* 0.73 (0.47, 1.15) 0.18 1.13 (0.83, 2.08) 0.24 0.57 (0.35, 0.91) 0.02 1.07 (0.66, 1.72) 0.80 0.65 (0.42, 1.02) 0.06
Girls
Mother smoking 1.09 (0.52, 2.20) 0.82 0.69 (0.47, 1.02) 0.07 0.86 (0.59, 1.26) 0.44 0.81 (0.53, 1.24) 0.32 1.18 (0.78, 1.77) 0.43 1.13 (0.78, 1.64) 0.53
Father smoking 0.82 (0.41, 1.64) 0.58 1.00 (0.68, 1.47) 1.00 1.29 (0.89, 1.86) 0.18 1.33 (0.87, 2.03) 0.18 0.68 (0.46, 1.01) 0.05 1.12 (0.78, 1.60) 0.54
Sibling smoking 1.69 (0.55, 5.15) 0.36 1.75 (0.95, 3.21) 0.07 0.84 (0.47, 1.49) 0.55 1.04 (0.55, 1.95) 0.90 0.71 (0.39, 1.29) 0.26 0.92 (0.57, 1.47) 0.73
Friend smoking 1.30 (0.49, 3.46) 0.60 0.77 (0.44, 1.33) 0.35 0.85 (0.50, 1.47) 0.57 1.32 (0.72, 2.43) 0.36 0.96 (0.54, 1.69) 0.88 1.11 (0.65, 1.88) 0.71
  1. Notes: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval. OR (95% CI) values reflect the strength of association between mother, father, sibling or friend smoking on attitudes towards smoking. All models were adjusted for non-smoking intentions, refusal self-efficacy, and school and deprivation level. *Significant association (P < 0.05).