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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Walking away from back pain: one step at a time – a community-based randomised controlled trial

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Males and females aged 18 years or over Any spinal surgery in the past 12 months
LBP (i.e. between the 12th costal margin and gluteal fold with or without associated leg pain) persisting for a minimum of three months Evidence of nerve root, spinal cord, or cauda equina compression assessed by a physiotherapist
Physically able to participate in a walking programme as determined by the PAR-Q* Current lower extremity musculoskeletal injury, cardiorespiratory or other medical condition that may be a contraindication to increasing physical activity levels
Average daily walking is fewer than 7500 steps as determined by a one week pedometer trial History of serious psychological or psychiatric illness
Current pregnancy
Average daily walking is greater than 7500 steps as determined by a one week pedometer trial
  1. *PAR-Q – Physical Activity readiness Questionnaire (Shephard 1988). If a participant answers yes to one or more questions on the PAR-Q, they will be advised to consult their primary healthcare provider to obtain physical clearance prior to confirming study participation.