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Table 3 Smoking status by gender and ethnic group

From: Religious involvement and tobacco use in mainland China: a preliminary study

Group Current smoking N (%) Past smoking N (%) TUD N (%)
Non-Muslim male, n = 609a 327 (53.6)*** 98 (16.0) 15 (2.4)
Muslim male, n = 433 139 (32.1) 58 (13.3) 10 (2.3)
Non-Muslim female, n = 1,011b 19 (1.8)* 22 (2.1)*** 1 (0.1)
Muslim female, n = 717 4 (0.5) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0)
Total sample, n = 2770 489 (17.6) 179 (6.4) 26 (0.9)
  1. aNon-Muslim male vs. Muslim male.
  2. bNon-Muslim female vs. Muslim female.
  3. *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001.
  4. TUD: ICD-10 of Tobacco Use Disorders.