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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample

From: Religious involvement and tobacco use in mainland China: a preliminary study

  Total n = 2770 Male n = 1042 Female n = 1728
Demographics    
Age, years, mean(sd) 44.2 (15.1) 45.2 (15.7) 43.7 (14.8)*
Education, years, mean(sd) 5.8 (4.9) 6.9 (4.7) 5.5 (5.0)***
Ethnic, Hui,% (n) 1,150 (41.5) 433 (41.5) 717 (41.5)
Marriage, married,% (n) 2,441 (88.1) 913 (87.6) 1528 (88.4)
Region, developed,% (n) 1,055 (38.1) 402 (38.6) 653 (37.8)
Migrant, yes,% (n) 857 (30.9) 295 (28.3) 565 (32.5)*
Urban/rural, rural,% (n) 2,048 (73.9) 787 (75.5) 1261 (72.9)
Physical health    
Overall physical health, poor,% (n) 1,152 (41.6) 472 (45.3) 680 (39.3)**
Type II diabetes, yes,% (n) 103 (3.7) 38 (3.6) 65 (3.7)
Hypertension, yes,% (n) 396 (14.3) 144 (13.8) 252 (14.5)
Physical pain, yes,% (n) 1,411 (50.9) 464 (44.5) 947 (54.8)***
Mental disorders    
Anxiety disorders, yes,% (n) 705 (25.4) 212 (20.3) 493 (28.5)***
Mood disorders, yes,% (n) 140 (5.0) 47 (4.5) 93 (5.3)
Insomnia, yes,% (n) 1,302 (47.0) 466 (44.7) 836 (48.3)
Religious involvement    
Religious attendance, mean (SD) 1.9 (1.4) 2.1 (1.5) 1.8 (1.3)***
Importance of religion, mean (SD) 2.6 (1.2) 2.6 (1.2) 2.6 (1.2)
High religiosity,% (n) 491 (17.7) 238 (22.8) 253 (14.6)***
Religion affiliations    
Buddhist/Taoist ,% (n) 246 (8.9) 99 (9.5) 147 (8.5)
Muslim,% (n) 1103 (39.8) 409 (39.2) 694 (40.1)
Christian/Catholic,% (n) 54 (1.9) 23 (2.2) 31 (1.8)
No affiliation,% (n) 1367 (49.3) 511 (49.0) 856 (49.5)
Smoking variables    
Current smoking, yes,% (n) 489 (17.6) 466 (44.7) 23 (1.3)***
Past smoker, yes,% (n) 179 (6.4) 156 (14.9) 23 (1.3)***
TUD, yes,% (n) 26 (0.9) 25 (2.4) 1 (0.1)***
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 (comparison is between male and female participants); TUD: ICD-10 of Tobacco Use Disorders.