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Table 1 Characteristics of tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe

From: Tuberculosis treatment delays and associated factors within the Zimbabwe national tuberculosis programme

Characteristics (N = 383) n N Weighted percent (95% CI)
Age in years    
 18 – 25 53 383 13.9% (10.5-18.2)
 26 – 44 244 383 63.8% (58.3-69.0)
 45 – 54 54 383 14.2% (10.6-18.6)
 ≥55 31 383 8.1 (5.7-11.6)
Sex    
 Female 172 383 45.0% (39.5-50.6)
 Male 211 383 55.0% (49.4-60.5)
Type of diagnostic test    
 Sputum microscopy 363 383 94.8% (93.0-96.2)
 Gene Xpert 20 383 5.2% (3.8-7.0)
Type of health facility    
 Provincial hospital 18 383 4.7% (3.1-6.9)
 District/mission hospital 237 383 61.8% (58.5-64.9)
 Urban municipal 73 383 19.1% (16.7-21.8)
 Rural primary healthcare facility 55 383 14.5% (11.4-18.2)
Diagnosing centre    
 Same as DOT facility 280 373 75.1% (71.8-78.2)
 Different from DOT facility 93 373 24.9% (21.8-28.3)
 Missing 10 383 2.6%
HIV tested    
 No 6 376 1.6% (0.8-3.4)
 Yes 370 376 98.4% (96.6-99.2)
 Missing 7 383 1.9%
HIV status    
 HIV-negative 140 370 37.9% (32.6-43.6)
 HIV-positive 230 370 62.1% (56.4-67.4)
HIV + ve patient on CPT/ART prior to TB treatment    
 No 72 230 31.2% (25.4-37.6)
 Yes 158 230 68.8 (62.4-74.7)
Staying with anyone currently on TB treatment    
 No 348 383 90.9% (86.3-95.3)
 Yes 35 383 9.1% (6.3-13.1)
Education    
 More than secondary 20 382 5.3% (3.3-8.4)
 Secondary 192 382 50.3% (45.0-55.6)
 Primary 145 382 38.0% (33.1-43.1)
 No education 25 382 6.5% (4.2-9.8)
 Missing 1 383 0.4%
Employment status    
 Formal employment 40 379 10.7% (8.0-14.2)
 Informal employment 105 379 27.6% (23.1-32.6)
 Unemployed 234 379 61.8% (56.7-66.6)
 Missing 4 383 1.0%
Residence    
 Urban 114 378 30.1% (26.1-34.5)
 Rural 264 378 69.9% (65.6-73.9)
 Missing 5 383 1.3%
History of smoking    
 Never smoked 269 380 70.7% (65.3-75.5)
 Current smoker 26 380 6.8% (4.3-10.6)
 Quit smoking 86 380 22.5% (18.3-27.4)
 Missing 3 383 0.8%
History of alcohol use    
 Never 213 373 57.0% (51.4-62.4)
 Current drinker 29 373 7.7% (5.5-10.6)
 Quit alchohol use 132 373 35.3% (30.2-40.9)
 Missing 10 383 2.6%
Previous contact with TB patient    
 No 210 383 54.8% (48.4-62.1)
 Yes 173 383 45.2% (39.8-50.6)
Marital status    
 Married 225 380 59.3% (53.6-64.7)
 Single 67 380 17.6% (13.7-22.4)
 Divorced/separated 35 380 9.3% (6.6-12.9)
 Widowed 52 380 13.8% (10.2-18.4)
 Missing 3 383 0.8%
Took self medication from pharmacy    
 No 335 383 87.5% (84.0-90.3)
 Yes 48 383 12.5% (9.7-16.0)
Took traditional medicine    
 No 348 383 90.8% (87.3-93.4)
 Yes 35 383 9.2% (6.6-12.7)
Visited a private practitioner    
 No 354 383 92.4% (89.4-94.7)
 Yes 29 383 7.6% (5.4-10.6)
Health care visits prior to diagnosis    
 1 173 378 45.6% (40.2-51.1)
 2 121 378 31.9% (26.9-37.3)
 3 40 378 10.5% (7.6-14.4)
 ≥4 45 378 12.0% (9.1-15.7)
 Missing 5 383 1.2%
Time taken to reach health facility    
 <30 minutes 150 377 39.9% (35.1-44.8)
 30mins - 1 hour 101 377 26.7% (21.9-32.0)
 >1 hour 126 377 33.5% (28.6-38.8)
 Missing 6 383 1.5%
Distance to health facility(in km)    
 ≤5 122 331 36.8% (32.3-41.6)
 6 – 15 64 331 19.5% (15.4-24.3)
 16 – 30 55 331 16.5% (12.3-21.8)
 ≥30 90 331 27.2% (22.4-32.5)
Missing 52 383 13.7%
Difficulty in accessing transport to health centre    
 No 322 383 84.2% (78.9-89.5)
 Yes 61 383 15.8% (12.1-20.5)
Ever heard of TB before diagnosis    
 Yes 43 365 88.1% (83.6-91.5)
 No 322 365 11.9% (8.5-16.4)
 Missing 18 383 4.8%
  1. NB: Percentages may not always add up to 100 because of rounding off error.
  2. DOT = directly observed treatment; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; CPT = cotrimoxazole preventive therapy; ART = antiretroviral therapy, TB = tuberculosis.