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Table 3 Prevalence and odds ratios for ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors by sociodemographic factors

From: Sociodemographic factors associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adults

Sociodemographic factor ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors
Men (n = 1044) Women (n = 1528)
n % (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) n % (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age group       
 25-34 130 53.6 (43.7, 63.2) Reference 173 42.8 (36.5, 49.3) Reference
 35-44 180 62.0 (52.1, 71.1) 1.25 (0.77, 2.02) 271 62.2 (56.8, 67.4) 1.81 (1.29, 2.34)*
 45-54 246 75.4 (68.2, 81.5) 2.43 (1.53, 3.84)** 315 74.5 (68.3, 79.8) 3.10 (2.18, 4.41)**
 55-64 178 79.8 (72.9, 85.3) 2.68 (1.39, 5.18)* 214 83.1 (76.7, 88.0) 5.76 (3.63, 9.15)**
Ethnicity       
 Malay 416 62.1 (52.0, 71.2) Reference 544 58.4 (53.4, 63.3) Reference
 Chinese 132 69.5 (60.2, 77.4) 1.47 (0.85, 2.52) 166 62.2 (54.1, 69.7) 0.93 (0.61, 1.41)
 Indian 64 80.8 (68.2, 89.2) 2.85 (1.31, 6.23)* 100 68.4 (59.4, 76.2) 1.43 (0.82, 2.50)
 Others 122 59.2 (51.5, 66.5) 0.89 (0.55, 1.43) 163 60.8 (53.7, 67.5) 1.06 (0.74, 1.54)
Marital status       
 Single 63 57.3 (47.7, 66.4) Reference 54 45.5 (35.1, 56.4) Reference
 Married 658 65.1 (57.7, 71.8) 1.02 (0.56, 1.83) 842 61.2 (57.1, 65.3) 0.91 (0.51, 1.62)
 Divorced/widowed 13 71.1 (42.1, 89.3) 1.09 (0.29, 4.18) 77 70.9 (59.1, 80.5) 1.24 (0.60, 2.60)
Income level       
 High (≥RM4000) 56 62.2 (47.1, 75.2) Reference 62 59.4 (42.1, 74.7) Reference
 Middle (RM1000-3999) 339 63.3 (53.9, 71.8) 0.97 (0.46, 2.08) 381 58.4 (53.9, 62.7) 0.75 (0.38, 1.48)
 Low (<RM1000) 329 65.3 (58.7, 71.3) 0.85 (0.34, 2.12) 466 60.7 (56.2, 65.0) 0.68 (0.32, 1.45)
Occupational status       
 Private sector employee 235 60.9 (51.9, 69.2) Reference 112 44.7 (37.1, 52.5) Reference
 Self-employed 268 61.3 (52.3, 69.6) 0.85 (0.58, 1.23) 141 60.3 (49.9, 69.8) 1.29 (0.79, 2.10)
 Housewife - - - 576 70.2 (66.2, 73.9) 2.16 (1.49, 3.14)**
 Government employee 115 67.1 (57.8, 75.2) 1.50 (0.90, 2.50) 65 51.2 (38.8, 63.3) 1.24 (0.65, 2.38)
 Others 116 78.6 (68.1, 86.3) 1.91 (0.87, 4.21) 79 46.2 (36.1, 56.7) 0.69 (0.34, 1.43)
Education status       
 Tertiary 86 51.3 (33.4, 68.9) Reference 91 39.0 (29.6, 49.3) Reference
 Secondary 373 64.7 (58.5, 70.4) 2.05 (0.89, 4.70) 418 58.6 (53.8, 63.2) 1.78 (1.13, 3.17)*
 Primary 227 69.8 (62.8, 75.9) 1.97 (0.86, 4.52) 323 71.6 (66.6, 76.2) 1.91 (1.16, 3.17)*
 No formal education 48 73.8 (57.6, 85.3) 2.58 (0.82, 8.18) 141 70.2 (61.8, 77.5) 1.97 (1.08, 3.59)*
Locality       
 Urban 364 63.3 (53.6, 72.1) Reference 490 60.1 (55.1, 65.0) Reference
 Rural 370 66.0 (61.0, 70.7) 1.32 (0.83, 2.10) 483 61.5 (57.1, 65.7) 0.98 (0.73, 1.32)
  1. Adjusted OR, adjusted for all other variables in the model; *p-value < 0.05; **p-value <0.001.