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Table 5 Prevalence of insufficient vegetable and fruit intake* by age, sex, rural/urban area and income quintiles among persons aged 50 years and older across six countries

From: Common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Russia and South Africa: the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1

  China Ghana India Mexico Russian Federation South Africa
% 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI
Men             
50-59 32.0 [27.7,36.7] 67.3 [62.2,72.0] 87.5 [84.4,90.1] 76.4 [48.5,91.8] 80.1 [70.0,87.4] 67.9 [61.8,73.5]
60-69 35.9 [31.0,41.1] 72.3 [67.8,76.4] 86.6 [82.2,90.0] 68.5 [56.9,78.2] 83.2 [70.7,91.1] 60.1 [51.9,67.8]
70-79 41.8 [35.9,47.9] 68.5 [62.7,73.8] 90.9 [87.2,93.7] 79.4 [69.8,86.6] 82.8 [67.4,91.9] 60.3 [49.1,70.6]
80+ 49.5 [42.1,56.9] 77.6 [68.7,84.5] 89.5 [82.2,94.0] 86.2 [75.9,92.5] 82.5 [54.4,94.9] 70.1 [53.2,82.9]
Women             
50-59 29.4 [25.7,33.4] 65.1 [60.5,69.5] 91.4 [89.1,93.2] 88.5 [80.4,93.5] 77.0 [70.2,82.7] 71.0 [65.9,75.6]
60-69 35.8 [31.3,40.5] 67.4 [62.8,71.7] 95.0 [93.1,96.4] 83.3 [75.9,88.8] 83.7 [75.4,89.5] 73.4 [66.5,79.3]
70-79 41.9 [36.4,47.5] 72.0 [67.3,76.3] 96.4 [93.2,98.1] 84.1 [76.2,89.7] 81.3 [68.8,89.6] 67.2 [58.8,74.7]
80+ 64.5 [57.6,71.0] 67.8 [60.4,74.5] 95.3 [91.4,97.5] 90.0 [83.6,94.1] 86.2 [74.6,93.1] 77.9 [65.5,86.8]
Residence             
Urban 34.7 [31.0,38.7] 67.1 [63.1,70.9] 88.2 [84.0,91.5] 84.2 [79.2,88.3] 79.7 [70.6,86.6] 65.0 [60.7,69.1]
Rural 36.6 [29.9,43.8] 70.1 [66.5,73.4] 91.6 [90.3,92.8] 70.9 [45.6,87.6] 84.0 [77.4,88.9] 75.1 [68.0,81.1]
Income quintile**             
Lowest 46.6 [37.4,56.1] 75.1 [70.5,79.3] 95.7 [94.0,96.9] 89.1 [83.5,93.0] 84.3 [72.3,91.7] 75.3 [66.7,82.2]
Second 42.0 [34.8,49.5] 70.4 [66.2,74.3] 95.3 [93.2,96.8] 79.8 [52.4,93.5] 72.6 [57.4,83.9] 73.7 [66.2,79.9]
Middle 36.7 [32.1,41.5] 68.8 [64.4,72.9] 92.4 [89.2,94.8] 82.2 [69.9,90.2] 78.1 [67.6,85.9] 69.5 [63.5,74.9]
Fourth 30.2 [26.3,34.5] 67.5 [62.5,72.1] 88.1 [85.4,90.4] 76.7 [69.1,82.9] 82.4 [74.9,88.0] 69.6 [62.9,75.5]
Highest 26.8 [22.7,31.4] 63.7 [59.2,67.9] 83.5 [79.6,86.8] 80.7 [68.9,88.8] 85.5 [78.3,90.7] 54.9 [47.9,61.7]
Total 35.6 [31.6,39.8] 68.9 [66.2,71.4] 90.6 [89.1,91.9] 81.4 [74.1,87.0] 81.0 [74.5,86.2] 68.4 [64.6,72.0]
  1. *Insufficient intake is equivalent to less than 5 servings of fruit and vegetables on average per day.
  2. **Income levels were generated through a multi-step process, where asset ownership was converted to an asset ladder, a Bayesian post-estimation method used to generate raw continuous income estimates, and then transformed into quintiles. Lowest (Quintile 1) is the quintile with the poorest households and Highest (Quintile 5) the quintile with the richest households.
  3. Note: Weighted estimates.