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Table 3 Prenatal characteristics by maternal socioeconomic status (SES)

From: Maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of asthma among offspring

  Total Upper white-collar worker n(%) Lower white-collar worker n(%) Blue-collar worker n(%) Other n(%) Missing n(%) p value
Primiparous 16 326(40.7) 2346 (40.9) 6006(40.7) 3221(40.2) 3572(38.4) 1181(50.8)  
Multiparous 23 792(59.5) 3388(59.1) 8757(59.3) 4784(59.8) 5720(61.6) 1143(49.2) <0.001
Gestational diabetes mellitus 2762(6.9) 350(6.1) 1086(7.4) 565(7.1) 540(5.8) 221(9.5) <0.001
Pre-eclampsia 1466(3.7) 175(3.1) 593(4.0) 325(4.1) 297(3.2) 76(3.3) <0.001
Fear of childbirth* 625(1.6) 98(1.7) 242(1.6) 83(1.0) 152(1.6) 50(2.2) <0.001
Parental smoking**        
Non-smoking 20 455(55.0) 3919(72.5) 7946(57.3) 3352(44.5) 4382(51.0) 856(47.6)  
Maternal/paternal smoking 9625(25.9) 1060(19.6) 3716(26.8) 2193(29.1) 2197(25.5) 459(25.5)  
Smoking 7118(19.1) 425(7.9) 2195(15.8) 1993(26.4) 2020(23.5) 485(26.9) <0.001
Mode of delivery        
Vaginal 33 280(83.0) 4685(81.7) 12 138(82.2) 6629(82.8) 7929(85.3) 1899(82.0)  
Elective cesarean 3176(7.9) 527(9.2) 1226(8.3) 599(7.5) 624(6.7) 200(8.6)  
Cesarean section during labour 3654(9.1) 522(9.1) 1399(9.5) 777(9.7) 739(8.0) 217(9.4) <0.001
Sex of child, Boy 20 461(51.0) 2940(51.3) 7550(51.1) 3995(49.9) 4753(51.2) 1223(52.6) 0.155
Gestatonal age at birth, weeks        
 <37 2325(5.5) 290(5.1) 854(5.8) 491(6.1) 515(5.5) 175(7.5)  
 37-40 27 977(69.7) 4103(71.6) 10 334(70.0) 5456(68.2) 6487(69.8) 1597(68.7)  
 ≥41 9813(24.5) 1340(23.4) 3575(24.2) 2056(25.7) 2290(24.6) 552(23.8) <0.001
Mean birth weight, grams*** 3517(589) 3541(560) 3525(587) 3496(602) 3523(584) 3457(642) 0.001
Apgar score <7 at 5 min 689(1.7) 91(1.6) 246(1.7) 144(1.8) 152(1.6) 56(2.4) 0.089
Care in Intensive Care Unit(NICU) 3466(8.6) 517(9.0) 1298(8.8) 701(8.8) 729(7.8) 221(9.5) 0.024
Placental abruption 257(0.6) 38(0.7) 74(0.5) 71(0.9) 54(0.6) 20(0.9) 0.006
Birth weight <2500 g 1703(4.2) 193(3.4) 606(4.1) 375(4.7) 381(4.1) 148(6.4) <0.001
Small for gestational age 3832(9.6) 500(8.7) 1316(8.9) 882(11.0) 867(9.3) 267(11.6) <0.001
Total 40 118(100) 5734(14.3) 14 763 (36.8) 8005 (20.0) 9292(23.2) 2324 (5.8)  
  1. *Data available years in 1996-2007.
  2. **Data available in 37 198 cases.
  3. ***Data are presented as mean (SD).