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Table 1 Demographic and occupational factors and current smoking status

From: Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

  n (%) Current smoker n (%) Current nonsmoker n (%) p value
All 1956 (100) 1025 (52.4) 931 (47.6)  
Age (years)     < 0.001
 ≤35 559 (28.6) 241 (43.1) 318 (56.9)  
 36–45 752 (38.4) 417 (55.5) 335 (44.5)  
 ≥46 645 (33.0) 367 (56.9) 278 (43.1)  
Marital status     0.001
 Single/divorced/widowed/separated 347 (17.7) 155 (44.7) 192 (55.3)  
 Married/cohabiting 1609 (82.3) 870 (54.1) 739 (45.9)  
Education     <0.001
 Junior high school or under 897 (45.9) 534 (59.5) 363 (40.5)  
 Senior high school/technical secondary school or above 1059 (54.1) 491 (46.4) 568 (53.6)  
Job rank     0.058
 Head miner 388 (19.8) 220 (56.7) 168 (43.3)  
 Staff miner 1568 (80.2) 805 (51.3) 763 (48.7)  
Occupational category     0.949
 Mining/tunneling 1049 (53.6) 549 (52.3) 500 (47.7)  
 Supporting 907 (46.4) 476 (52.5) 431 (47.5)  
ERI     0.236
 Low 652 (33.3) 324 (49.7) 328 (50.3)  
 Intermediate 653 (33.4) 350 (53.6) 303 (46.4)  
 High 651 (33.3) 351 (53.9) 300 (46.1)  
PPE     0.009
 Low 647 (33.1) 310 (47.9) 337 (52.1)  
 Intermediate 657 (33.6) 370 (56.3) 287 (43.7)  
 High 652 (33.3) 345 (52.9) 307 (47.1)  
  1. ERI, effort-reward imbalance; PPE, perceived physical environment.