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Table 4 Multivariate analyses of risk factors for stunting in Southern Ethiopia

From: Determinants of underweight, stunting and wasting among schoolchildren

Variable Normal Ht/age Stunted Crude OR Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Sex     
Male 156 53 1 1
Female 175 61 1(0.7,1.6) 0.9(0.6,1.7)
Age     
7_9 108 15 1 1
10_14 223 99 3.2(1.8,5.8) 3.4(1.7,6.6)***
Maternal education     
No formal education 157 78 1 1
Read and write 103 21 0.4(0.2,0.7) 0.5(0.3,0.9)*
Primary education 66 12 0.4(0.2,0.7) 0.3(0.2,0.8)**
Secondary and above 5 3 1.2(0.3,5.8) 2.5(0.2,7.0)
Family monthly, USD     
≤10 179 73 1 1
11-25 104 29 0.7(0.4,1.1) 0.6(0.3,1.1)
>25 48 12 0.6(0.3,1.2) 0.6(0.3,1.5)
Ascariasis     
No 165 57 1 1
Yes 166 57 1.0(0.6,1.5) 0.8(0.5,1.4)
Hook worm     
No 320 112 1 1
Yes 11 2 0.5(0.1,2.4) 0.4(0.1,2.4)
Trichuriasis     
No 322 104 1 1
Yes 9 10 3.1(1.4,8.7) 3.9(1.4,11.6)*
Food security status     
Food secure 200 42 1 1
Mild food insecure 90 39 2.1(1.2,3.4) 1.4(0.8,2.5)**
Moderate food insecure 13 16 5.9(2.6,13) 4.1(1.6,10)***
Severe food insecure 28 17 2.9(1.4,5.7) 2.5(1.0,5.6)***
Family size     
Small 108 28 1 1
Medium 156 52 1.3(0.7,2.1) 1.1(0.6,2.0)
Large 67 34 2.0(1.1,3.5) 1.7(0.8,3.4)
Personal hygiene     
Very good 45 9 1 1
Good 230 55 1.2(0.5,2.6) 1.3(0.5,3.0)
Poor 56 50 4.5(1.9,10) 6.9(2.8,17)
  1. ***P value < 0.001, **P value < 0.01, *P value <0.05.
  2. In the fully adjusted model : sex, age, family size, maternal education, monthly income, household food insecurity,infection with ascariasis,trichuriasis, hookworm and helmithiasis were used for underweight, stunting and wasting. For wasting in addition to these factors intakes of energy and carbohydrate were used.
  3. Dale Woreda, Southern Ethiopia, 2012.