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Table 1 Differences between demographic and infection groups in number of visits and distance travelled for HIV treatment

From: Influence of socio-demographic factors on distances travelled to access HIV services: enhanced surveillance of HIV patients in north west England

  N Total no. visits F Per trip distance km F Total yearly return km F
Sex    2.1   4.2*   6.9**
Male 2945 6.1 (5.9, 6.2)   4.8 (4.7, 5.0)   59.2 (57.0, 62.1)  
Female 1038 5.8 (5.6, 6.1)   4.5 (4.3, 4.8)   53.1 (49.2, 57.0)  
Age (years)    5.7***   4.9***   9.7***
0–14 67 6.8 (5.9, 8.0)   6.8 (5.6, 8.0)   92.9 (74.4, 116.0)  
15–19 27 7.4 (5.6, 9.8)   4.5 (3.1, 6.3)   65.8 (39.9, 108.6)  
20–24 165 5.5 (4.9, 6.2)   4.3 (3.7, 5.0)   47.3 (40.1, 55.8)  
25–29 467 5.6 (5.2, 6.0)   4.2 (3.9, 4.5)   47.2 (42.5, 52.5)  
30–34 674 5.4 (5.1, 5.7)   4.2 (3.9, 4.5)   45.4 (41.0, 50.1)  
35–39 851 5.7 (5.5, 6.1)   4.8 (4.5, 5.1)   55.2 (50.9, 59.7)  
40–44 762 6.5 (6.1, 6.8)   5.0 (4.7, 5.5)   64.9 (59.5, 70.7)  
45–49 439 6.9 (6.5, 7.3)   5.1 (4.7, 5.6)   70.2 (63.2, 77.7)  
50–54 270 6.4 (5.8, 6.9)   5.1 (4.7, 5.8)   66.0 (57.8, 75.5)  
55–59 138 6.2 (5.5, 7.0)   5.6 (4.7, 6.6)   69.0 (56.3, 84.7)  
60+ 123 6.7 (6.0, 7.4)   6.3 (5.3, 7.6)   84.8 (69.7, 103.2)  
Ethnicity    2.7**   12.0***   12.2***
White 2649 6.1 (6.0, 6.3)a   5.1 (5.0, 5.3)ae   63.7 (60.8, 66.6)a  
Black Caribbean 45 6.5 (5.2, 8.2)a   3.1 (2.3, 4.0)bc   38.9 (27.4, 55.4)abcd  
Black African 1082 5.8 (5.5, 6.0)ab   4.0 (3.7, 4.2)bd   46.0 (42.8, 49.2)cd  
Black Other 15 6.5 (4.7, 9.0)ab   3.7 (2.4, 5.5)acd   47.3 (29.3, 77.2)abcd  
Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi 48 5.5 (4.6, 6.6)ab   4.8 (3.7, 6.6)acd   54.1 (37.3, 78.2)bcd  
Other Asian/Oriental 46 5.5 (4.2, 7.1)ab   6.8 (5.0, 9.3)a   74.7 (48.6, 114.9)bd  
Other/Mixed 75 6.0 (5.1, 7.1)ab   5.5 (4.3, 7.1)ad   66.0 (48.9, 89.2)bcd  
Unknown 23 3.6 (2.5, 5.1)b   2.9 (1.4, 5.3)cde   20.3 (9.3, 44.4)bcd  
Route of Infection    5.1***   17.1***   15.2***
Sex between men 2172 6.3 (6.1, 6.5)ab   4.8 (4.7, 5.0)ab   60.2 (57.0, 63.1)a  
Injecting drug use 94 5.3 (4.5, 6.2)ab   5.1 (4.2, 6.3)abc   53.1 (41.5, 68.6)ab  
Heterosexual 1526 5.7 (5.5, 6.0)ab   4.5 (4.2, 4.7)ab   51.2 (48.0, 54.4)b  
Blood/tissue 57 5.9 (5.0, 7.0)ab   13.2 (10.1, 17.2)   156.4 (114.9, 212.4)c  
Mother to child 71 7.2 (6.2, 8.3)a   7.2 (6.1, 8.5)bc   104.0 (84.3, 128.1)c  
Other/unknown 63 4.9 (3.9, 6.1)b   5.8 (4.5, 7.2)abc   56.0 (39.6, 78.9)ab  
Residency    5.0***   18.5***   22.2***
UK 2997 6.1 (6.0, 6.3)a   5.1 (5.0, 5.3)   63.4 (60.8, 66.0)  
Asylum Seeker 367 5.5 (5.1, 6.0)ab   3.7 (3.4, 4.2)a   41.8 (37.0, 47.0)a  
Overseas Student 109 5.2 (4.5, 6.0)ab   3.5 (2.9, 4.2)a   35.7 (28.6, 44.4)a  
Other non-UK 244 6.4 (5.8, 6.9)ab   4.0 (3.5, 4.5)a   50.5 (43.8, 58.3)a  
Unknown 266 5.3 (4.8, 5.9)b   3.9 (3.4, 4.3)a   41.2 (35.1, 48.0)a  
Level of antiretroviral therapy    147.3***   28.9***   138.4***
None 1333 4.7 (4.5, 4.9)Ŧ   4 (3.9, 4.3)   38.3 (35.7, 40.9)Ŧ  
Mono+, dual+, triple 1935 6.4 (6.2, 6.6)Ŧ   5.1 (5.0, 5.5)a   66.0 (62.8, 69.5)Ŧ  
Quadruple or more 715 8.1 (7.7, 8.5)Ŧ   5.3 (4.8, 5.6)a   85.3 (78.9, 92.4)Ŧ  
Deprivation and urban category   1.6   198.1***   122.9***  
Not urban, least deprived 150 5.4 (4.8, 6.0)   16.1 (14.2, 18.3)T   173.5 (146.5, 205.0)T  
Urban, least deprived 1192 6.1 (5.9, 6.4)   6.6 (6.3, 6.9)T   80.8 (75.3, 86.3)T  
Urban, average deprivation 1347 6.1 (5.8, 6.3)   4.3 (4.2, 4.7)T   52.8 (49.6, 56.3)T  
Urban, most deprived 1294 5.9 (5.7, 6.2)   3.4 (3.2, 3.5)T   40.6 (38.3, 43.1)T  
Total 3983 6.0 (5.9, 6.2)   4.8 (4.6, 4.9)   57.6 (55.4, 59.5)  
  1. Figures in brackets are lower and upper confidence intervals. Univariate analysis, ANOVA and means calculated on log transformed variables.
  2. Total mileage is return mileage, and does not equate to number of visits multiplied by length of a single journey, since individuals may have used more than one treatment centre.
  3. +9 individuals on dual, 1 on mono therapy.
  4. Means in the same group with the same superscript letter do not significantly differ after post hoc analysis (Bonferroni multiple comparisons). Multiple comparisons by age are too complex to show here, but are typified by those in the youngest and oldest age groups being significantly higher than those in the 25 to 34 year age groups.
  5. Ŧall means significantly different from each other after Bonferroni multiple comparisons
  6. *** P < 0.001, ** P < 0.01, * P < 0.05