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Table 3 Correlation between Maternal Mortality Ratio and country indicators

From: Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

Indicator N r* p
Maternal mortality (deaths per 100 000 live births) 43 1  
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM-RELATED    
Infant mortality (deaths per 1000 live births) 43 0,815 < 0,001
Antenatal care coverage (%) 42 -0,413 0,006
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%) 43 -0,572 < 0,001
Access to an improved water source (%) 43 -0,399 0,008
Access to improved sanitation (%) 43 -0,261 0,091
EDUCATIONAL    
Adult literacy rate (%) 39 -0,517 < 0,001
Contraceptive prevalence (%) 42 -0,622 < 0,001
Ratio of female rate to male rate (%) 39 -0,485 0,002
Primary enrolment rate (%) 37 -0,386 0,018
Primary enrolment rate, female (%) 33 -0,435 0,012
Education index (%) 43 -0,534 < 0,001
ECONOMICAL    
Public expenditure on health (%GNP) 43 -0,109 0,488
Public expenditure on education (%GNP) 39 -0,242 0,138
Gross National Income per capita ($) 43 -0,456 0,002
External resources for Health (%) 43 0,266 0,085
Government expenditure on Health (%) 43 -0,12 0,442
Out-of-pocket expenditure on Health (%) 43 0,365 0,016
Per-capita government expenditure on health ($) 43 -0,452 0,002
  1. * r: correlation coefficient from Pearson or Spearman tests.