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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Combined effects of functionally-oriented exercise regimens and nutritional supplementation on both the institutionalised and free-living frail elderly (double-blind, randomised clinical trial)

Characteristics Group I (n = 19)
PRE+FOE+nutritional supplement
Group II (n = 21)
PRE+FOE + placebo
Group III (n = 19)
SE+FOE+nutritional supplement
Group IV (n = 21)
SE+FOE + placebo
Age, mean ± SD 78.1 ± 7.6 79.2 ± 9.2 78.3 ± 6.8 81.1 ± 6.4
Female sex (%) 84 81 74 81
Height (cm) mean ± SD 159 ± 5.3 160 ± 8.7 159 ± 7.5 158 ± 9.3
Weight (kg) mean ± SD 62.2 ± 13.2 63.4 ± 12.1 63.8 ± 12.3 63.9 ± 11.2
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138 ± 9.9 129 ± 18.1 136 ± 17.5 140 ± 18.1
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 85 ± 7.9 80 ± 9.5 81 ± 7.0 82 ± 9.5
Heart rate mean ± SD 77 ± 9.3 75 ± 6.5 76 ± 4.8 76 ± 10.5
Diagnoses/medications     
Cardiovascular diseases (%) 79 67 74 76
Pulmonary disorders (%) 53 48 58 52
Locomotive disorders (%) 63 62 68 67
Neurological disorders (%) 37 38 32 43
Urinary system diseases (%) 21 19 26 24
Visual deficits (%) 47 43 42 38
Regular medications
Mean ± SD
8.3 ± 5.6 9.1 ± 4.4 8.6 ± 5.1 9.4 ± 4.6
Key inclusion criteria     
Berg Balance Scale (0–56) mean ± SD 45 ± 9.5 47 ± 8.2 46 ± 8.3 44 ± 9.2
MMSE (0–30) mean ± SD 23.8 ± 3.7 23.5 ± 4.5 24.7 ± 5.9 23.7 ± 4.0
Nutritional status     
BMI (kg/m2) mean ± SD 24.7 ± 0.8 24.3 ± 0.6 25.2 ± 0.7 25.2 ± 0.6
MNA score (0–30) mean ± SD 22.1 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.5 23.3 ± 2.2 22.4 ± 2.2
Na mmol/l mean ± SD 142.8 ± 5.1 143.8 ± 1.9 144.1 ± 2.7 143 ± 2.7
K mmol/l mean ± SD 4.1 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 0.4 4.3 ± 0.5
Ca mmol/l mean ± SD 1.8 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.7
Glucose mmol/l mean ± SD 4.9 ± 0.57 4.8 ± 0.57 4.8 ± 0.54 4.9 ± 0.86
Total cholesterol mol/l mean ± SD 5.09 ± 1.57 6.35 ± 1.04 5.54 ± 1.07 6.07 ± 1.02
LDL mmol/l mean ± SD 3.45 ± 1.2 4.25 ± 1.0 3.92 ± 0.9 4.18 ± 0.9
HDL mmol/l mean ± SD 1.44 ± 0.4 1.65 ± 0.6 1.45 ± 0.4 1.39 ± 0.5
Functional capability     
ADL (0–6) mean ± SD 5.4 ± 0.8 5.5 ± 0.8 5.4 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 1.1
IADL (0–27) mean ± SD 20.8 ± 5.4 21.4 ± 5.5 20.7 ± 4.8 20.1 ± 4.7
Tinetti Total score (0–28)
Mean ± SD
22.3 ± 5.3 23.8 ± 4.1 22.5 ± 5.6 20.9 ± 4.8
Tinetti Balance score (0–16) mean ± SD 12.5 ± 3.1 13.6 ± 2.2 13.1 ± 3.5 11.0 ± 3.0
Tinetti Gait score (0–12)
Mean ± SD
9.7 ± 3.0 10.2 ± 2.2 9.4 ± 2.5 9.9 ± 2.6
6 MW test (m.) mean ± SD 267 ± 129 222 ± 103 262 ± 106 228 ± 107
Use walking aids (%) 42 48 47 43
Muscle strength (N/m.)     
Right leg     
Knee flexion mean ± SD 18.1 ± 7.0 18.5 ± 6.4 17.7 ± 5.3 18.6 ± 6.3
Knee extension mean ± SD 33 ± 12.7 36 ± 9.9 34.5 ± 13.4 33.5 ± 10.9
Hip flexion mean ± SD 27.1 ± 12.6 29.9 ± 13.2 29.6 ± 9.6 28.5 ± 9.6
Hip extension mean ± SD 21.2 ± 7.3 21.3 ± 8.5 20.2 ± 8.5 20.3 ± 8.2
Left leg     
Knee flexion mean ± SD 18.3 ± 6.5 17.9 ± 5.8 17.7 ± 5.2 18.9 ± 6.7
Knee extension mean ± SD 33.6 ± 13.6 36.8 ± 13.0 33.1 ± 12.2 34.9 ± 13.8
Hip flexion mean ± SD 29.8 ± 10.5 31.9 ± 11.8 31.1 ± 13.1 30.5 ± 10.6
Hip extension mean ± SD 22.4 ± 7.3 22 ± 9.9 21.6 ± 5.9 22.1 ± 7.4
  1. PRE – Progressive resistance exercises, FOE – Functionally-oriented exercises, SE – Standard exercises, SD – standard deviation, MMSE – Mini-Mental State Examination, BMI – Body Mass Index, MNA – Mini Nutritional Assessment, LDL – Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL – High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ADL – Activities of Daily Living, IADL – Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, 6 MW – Six-Minute Walk test