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Table 2 Themes by language and education level

From: Beyond literacy and numeracy in patient provider communication: Focus groups suggest roles for empowerment, provider attitude and language

  Language discordant communication Language discordant communication Language concordant communication Language concordant communication Provider attitude Provider attitude Empowerment Empowerment Health care system
  Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative  
English Low
Ed. 1
None None Occasional Common Occasional Common Occasional Occasional Occasional
English Low
Ed. 2
None None Uncommon Uncommon Occasional Occasional Common Common Common
English High
Ed. 1
None None Common Uncommon Occasional Occasional Common Uncommon Occasional
English High
Ed. 2
None None Occasional Uncommon Common Occasional Very common Uncommon Occasional
Cantonese
Low Ed. 1
Occasional Occasional Common Uncommon Occasional Occasional Occasional Occasional None
Cantonese
Low Ed. 2
Uncommon Uncommon Occasional Occasional Occasional Common Uncommon Common None
Cantonese
High Ed. 1
None None Occasional None Occasional Occasional Very common None None
Cantonese
High Ed. 2
Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon None Common Common Common None None
Spanish
Low Ed. 1
Uncommon Occasional Occasional Uncommon Occasional Uncommon Occasional Occasional Uncommon
Spanish
Low Ed. 2
Uncommon Occasional Occasional Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Occasional Uncommon
Spanish
High Ed. 1
None None Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon
Spanish
High Ed. 2
None Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Occasional Occasional Uncommon
  1. Main themes raised during the positive and negative experiences discussions, categorized as none (0), uncommon (1-3), occasional (4-9), common (10-19; in bold) and very common (20 or more; in bold).