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Table 3 Odds ratio for reporting acne with mental distress, diet, lifestyle factors and socio-demographic variables among 1316 and 1647 late adolescent boys and girls in Oslo, Norway.

From: Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway

   Acne
   Crude OR Adjusted OR
   Males Females Males Females
Mental distress      
  No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Yes 1.63 (1.08-2.44) 2.16 (1.61-2.90) 1.68 (1.10-2.57) 2.04 (1.50-2.77)
Diet      
   Soft drinks with sugar Often 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Seldom 1.22 (0.84-1.77) 0.88 (0.53-1.46) 1.04 (0.95-2.08) 1.11 (0.64-1.92)
   Raw vegetables Often 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Seldom 1.26 (0.91-1.74) 1.41 (1.05-1.90) 1.30 (0.93-1.82) 1.38 (1.01-1.88)
   Fat fish Seldom 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Often 1.49 (0.81-2.67) 1.47 (0.81-2.67) 1.57 (0.86-2.86) 1.32 (0.70-2.47)
   Chocolate/sweets Seldom 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Often 1.40 (1.01-1.94) 1.29 (0.95-1.74) 1.26 (0.84-1.88) 1.26 (0.84-1.88)
   Potato chips Seldom 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Often 1.54 (1.03-2.29) 1.07 (0.67-1.70) 1.45 (0.88-2.40) 1.45 (0.88-2.40)
Lifestyle      
   Cigarette smoking Yes, daily 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Yes, but has quit or sometimes 1.06 (0.65-1.74) 1.12 (0.73-1.73) 1.16 (0.70-1.92) 1.25 (0.80-1.95)
  No, never 1.14 (0.73-1.78) 1.09 (0.73-1.61) 1.19 (0.73-1.93) 1.18 (0.77-1.82)
   Alcohol intake Often 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Seldom 1.31 (0.95-1.79) 1.22 (0.90-1.66) 1.33 (0.93-1.89) 1.01 (0.71-1.43)
Socio-demographic factors      
   Ethnicity Western 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  Non-Western 1.02 (0.69-1.51) 1.77 (1.27-2.45) 0.79 (0.48-1.31) 1.53 (0.95-2.16)
   Income >1.0 million NOK 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  0.5-1.0 million NOK 1.09 (0.68-1.73) 1.55 (1.02-2.34) 1.0 (0.57-1.74) 1.33 (0.87-2.04)
  < 0.5 million NOK 1.10 (0.76-1.61) 2.14 (1.36-3.35) 1.06 (0.72-1.57) 1.48 (0.88-2.48)
  1. 95% confidence interval
  2. Adjusted OR for reporting acne with mental distress, adjusted for all other factors in the table among 1316 and 1647 late adolescent boys and girls in Oslo Norway.