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Table 2 Distribution of adverse birth outcomes according to area characteristics, maternal birth place and education, singleton births, Québec, Canada, 1999–2003

From: The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study

  Foreign-born Canadian-born High school diploma or less Some postsecondary or more
PTB % PTB N % PTB N % PTB N % PTB N
   Area income         
Poorest 6.4 21 657 6.7 91 628 8.1 31 393 5.9 75 344
Intermediate 6.3 22 312 6.4 96 177 7.9 25 718 5.7 84 234
Wealthiest 6.0 15 505 5.9 103 344 7.4 19 920 5.4 90 854
Trend p-value 0.07   <.0001   0.004   <.0001  
   Immigrant density         
Low 4.9 2 043 6.6 112 714 8.1 27 536 6.0 82 546
Intermediate 5.6 7 579 6.2 111 006 7.7 22 350 5.5 86 045
High 6.4 49 852 6.0 67 429 7.6 27 145 5.4 81 841
Trend p-value 0.0002   <.0001   0.01   <.0001  
   Income inequality         
High 6.3 35 819 6.0 80 636 7.3 22 161 5.5 86 780
Intermediate 6.0 16 783 6.3 100 812 8.0 25 257 5.6 84 382
Low 6.3 6 872 6.6 109 701 8.0 29 613 5.9 79 270
Trend p-value 0.28   <.0001   0.004   0.002  
SGA birth % SGA N % SGA N % SGA N % SGA N
   Area income         
Poorest 10.0 21 639 8.8 91 542 11.5 31 365 7.9 75 291
Intermediate 9.4 22 301 8.2 96 102 11.0 25 703 7.5 84 175
Wealthiest 9.1 15 492 7.3 103 278 10.5 19 910 6.8 90 795
Trend p-value 0.0009   <.0001   0.0002   <.0001  
   Immigrant density         
Low 9.0 2 042 8.1 112 628 10.8 27 514 7.2 82 492
Intermediate 8.7 7 573 7.9 110 924 11.3 22 335 7.0 85 983
High 9.7 49 817 8.2 67 370 11.1 27 129 8.0 81 786
Trend p-value 0.006   0.33   0.20   <.0001  
   Income inequality         
High 9.4 35 801 7.6 80 560 10.7 22 149 7.3 86 716
Intermediate 9.3 16 763 8.1 100 746 11.1 25 241 7.4 84 326
Low 10.7 6 868 8.4 109 616 11.3 29 588 7.4 79 219
Trend p-value 0.008   <.0001   0.03   0.22  
  1. PTB = preterm birth; SGA = small-for-gestational-age