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Table 4 Studies examining injury-related post-Persian Gulf service mortality (all investigations involve retrospective cohort designs)

From: A systematic review of post-deployment injury-related mortality among military personnel deployed to conflict zones

  Study Characteristics Mortality Rate Ratios
Gulf Veterans/Non-Gulf Veterans
(95% Confidence Intervals)
Study [Reference No] Follow-Up Period in Yearsa Sampleb Sample Sizec Measured All External Causes (Injury) Motor Vehicle Accidents Suicide Homicide
Kang and Bullman 1996 [28] M = 3 ♂ US Service Members GV = 544,270
NGV = 456,726
AMRRe 1.17 (1.07–1.29) 1.27 (1.09–1.48) 0.88 (0.72–1.08) 0.80 (0.61–1.05)
   ♀ US Service Members GV = 49,919
NGV = 84,517
  1.78 (1.16–2.73) 1.81 (0.96–3.41) 1.47 (0.63–3.43) 2.66 (0.96–7.36)
Kang and Bullman 2001 [57] M = 7
A = 7
♂ US Service Members GV = 578,369h
NGV = 646,997h
AMRRf 1.04 (0.99–1.10) 1.19 (1.09–1.30) 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.90 (0.78–1.04)
   ♀ US Service Members GV = 43,533h
NGV = 99,25h
  1.39 (1.08–1.80) 1.63 (1.09–2.45) 1.29 (0.78–2.31) 1.54 (0.86–2.76)
MacFarlane et al. 2000 [32] M = 8 UK Service Members GV = 53,416
NGV = 53,450
MRR 1.18 (0.98–1.42)i 1.25 (0.91–1.72) 0.98 (0.65–1.48) 0.75 (0.11–4.44)
MacFarlane et al. 2005 [59] M = 13 UK Service Members GV = 51,753
NGV = 50,808
AMRRg 1.19 (1.02–1.39) 1.44 (1.13–1.84)j 1.04 (0.80–1.36) no data in article
Sim et al. 2003 [61] M = 10 Australian Service Members GV = 1,833
NGV = 2,847
AMRRi 1.1 (0.5–2.9) few cases
no data in article
few cases
no data in article
few cases
no data in article
  1. aM = Maximal follow-up period (the first number is the year the last person entered the study to the end of the survey period; the second number is the year the first person entered the study to the end of the survey period). A = Average follow-up time (if reported).
  2. bUS = United States, UK = United Kingdom, ♂ = male, ♀ = female
  3. cGV = Gulf War veterans; NGV = Not Gulf War veterans
  4. dMRR = mortality rate ratio; AMRR = adjusted mortality rate ratio
  5. eAdjusted for age, gender, race, branch of service, and component
  6. fAdjusted for age, race, service branch, component, and marital status
  7. gAdjusted for age
  8. hEstimated from demographics in article.
  9. iAdjusted for age, rank, and service type
  10. jCalled "transportation accidents" using ICD-10