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Table 3 Studies examining injury-related post-Vietnam service mortality

From: A systematic review of post-deployment injury-related mortality among military personnel deployed to conflict zones

  Study Characteristics Mortality Rate Ratios
Vietnam Veterans/Non-Vietnam Veterans
(95% Confidence Intervals Where Available)
Study [Reference No] Follow-Up Period (years)a Sampleb Sample Sizec Measured All External Causes (Injury) Motor Vehicle Accidents Suicide Homicide
Proportionate Mortality Investigations
Kogan & Clapp 1985 [7] M = 10–25 US White ♂ Veterans from MA State VN = 840
NVN = 2,515
PMR 1.08 1.10 0.93 0.80
Lawrence 1985 [20] M = 7–10 US ♂ Veterans from NY State VN = 555
NVN = 941
APMRe no data in article 0.86 (0.66–1.11) 1.24 (0.88–1.75) 1.59 (0.86–2.94)
Anderson et al. 1986 [38] M = 3–14 US White ♂ Veterans from WI State VN = 922
NVN = 1,569
PMR 0.99 (0.96–1.03) 1.03 (0.95–1.11) 0.98 (0.84–1.15) no data in article
Breslin et al. 1988 [39] M = 8–17 US Army ♂ Veterans VN = 19,708
NVN = 22,904
PMR 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.05 (1.01–1.09) 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 1.01 (0.73–1.40)
   US Marine ♂ Veterans VN = 4,527
NVN = 3,781
  1.00 (0.95–1.05)f 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.98 (0.89–1.08)
Bullman et al. 1990 [40] M = 11–19 US Army Veterans VN = 6,668
NVN = 27,917
PMR 1.06 (1.03–1.09) 1.08 (1.02–1.14) 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 1.07 (0.99–1.16)
Watanabe et al. 1991 [24] M = 10–20 US Army ♂ Veterans VN = 24,145
NVN = 27,917
PMR 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.03 (0.99–1.07)f 0.96 (0.91–1.01)f 1.02 (0.98–1.10)f
   US Marine ♂ Veterans VN = 5,501
NVN = 4,505
  1.02 (0.99–1.05)f 1.02 (0.95–1.12)f 0.99 (0.89–1.10)f 1.04 (0.93–1.17)f
Visintainer et al. 1995 [41] M = 18–24 US ♂ Veterans from MI State VN = 3,364
NVN = 5,229
PMR 0.95 (0.89–1.02) no data in article 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.03 (0.93–1.14)
Watanabe & Kang 1996 [26] M = 17–23 US Army ♂ Veterans VN = 27,596
NVN = 31,757
PMR 1.04 1.03 0.97 1.05 (1.01–1.09)
   US Marine ♂ Veterans VN = 6,237
NVN = 5,040
  1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01
Retrospective Cohort Investigations
Fett et al. 1984 [42] M = 9–16 Australian ♂ Army Conscripts VN = 19,205
NVN = 26,957
MRR 1.3 (1.0–1.3) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 1.5 (0.9–2.3) no data in article
Boyle et al. 1987 [9] M = 12–18
A = 14
US Army ♂ Junior Enlisted Veterans VN = 9,324
NVN = 8,989
MRR 1.25 (1.00–1.55) 1.48 (1.04–2.09) 0.98 (0.58–1.65) 0.99 (0.57–1.71)
Thomas et al. 1991 [23] M = 15–23
A = 17
US ♀ Service Members VN = 4,582
NVN = 5,324
AMRRg 1.33 (0.80–2.23) 3.19 (1.03–9.86) 0.96 (0.39–2.39) no data in article
Watanabe et al. 1995 [25] M = 18–24
A = 22
US Army Marines VN = 10,716
NVN = 9,346
MRR 1.20 (0.99–1.45) 1.04 (0.76–1.43) 1.15 (0.75–1.76) no data in article
Dalager & Kang 1997 [27] M = 18–26
A = 20
US Army Chemical Corps Personnel VN = 2,872
NVN = 2,737
AMRRh 0.83 (0.57–1.22) no data in article no data in article no data in article
Boehmer et al. 2004 [29] M = 29–35
A = 30
US Army ♂ Junior Enlisted Veterans VN = 9,324
NVN = 8,989
MRR 1.19 (1.01–1.39) 1.24 (0.94–1.64)i 1.03 (0.74–1.44)i 0.90 (0.60–1.36)i
Cypel & Kang 2008 [51] M = 32–40 US ♀ Service Members VN = 4,586
NVN = 5,325
AMRRj 1.34 (0.91–1.96) 2.60 (1.22–5.55) 0.90 (0.44–1.85) no data in article
  1. aM = Maximal follow-up period (the first number is the year the last person entered the study to the end of the survey period; the second number is the year the first person entered the study to the end of the survey period). A = Average follow-up time (if reported).
  2. bUS = United States, MA = Massachusetts, MI = Michigan, NY = New York, WI = Wisconsin
  3. cVN = Vietnam-era veterans serving in Vietnam; NVN = Vietnam-era veterans not serving in Vietnam
  4. dPMR = proportionate mortality ratio; APMR = adjusted proportionate mortality ratio; MRR = mortality rate ratio; AMRR = adjusted mortality rate ratio
  5. eAdjusted for age, race, and education
  6. fApproximate confidence interval calculated from data in study
  7. gAdjusted for age, race, rank, military occupational specialty, and duration of military service
  8. hAdjusted for age, race, rank, and duration of military service
  9. iCalculated from data in article
  10. jAdjusted for rank, nursing status, duration of military service, age at entry, and race