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Table 1 Methodological considerations in selected military veteran mortality studies

From: A systematic review of post-deployment injury-related mortality among military personnel deployed to conflict zones

Study [Reference No] Conflict Source of Veteran Status Source of Conflict Zone Status Source of Vital Status Cause of Death Coding ICD Codebook Revisionc Methodological Quality Score
Proportionate Mortality Investigations
Kogan & Clapp 1985 [7] Vietnam MA state bonus listb MA state bonus listb MA state mortality records As listed in MA state mortality records and/or MA death certificates ICD9 73
Lawrence et al. 1985 [20] Vietnam 1. NY state vital records
2. DMDC
DMDC 1. VA-BLIRS
2. NY state vital records
3. Interviews
As listed in NY state vital records ICD8 83
Anderson et al. 1986 [38] Vietnam 1. WI state death certificate
2. VA-BIRLS
3. WI VA graves registration
4. Military service separation file (DD Form 214)
1. Military service separation file (DD Form 214)
2. WI VA graves registration
1. WI state mortality records
2. WI VA graves registration
3. VA-BIRLS
As listed on WI state death certificate ICD7 (1960–67)
ICD8 (1968–78)
ICD9 (1979–85)
84
Breslin et al. 1988 [39] Vietnam VA-BIRLS NPRC VA-BIRLS Nosologist used death certificate from VA files, state vital records (supplemented by SSA, IRS, & NDI
for location of death), or DD casualty office
ICD8 80
Bullman et al. 1990 [40] Vietnam VA-BIRLS NPRC VA-BIRLS Nosologist used death certificate from VA files or state vital offices ICD8 79
Watanabe et al. 1991 [24] Vietnam VA-BIRLS NPRC VA-BIRLS Nosologist used death certificate from VA files, federal archive records, or state vital offices ICD8 79
Visintainer et al. 1995 [41] Vietnam MI state bonus listb MI state bonus listb MI death certificate database As listed on MI death certificate not stated 73
Watanabe & Kang 1996 [26] Vietnam VA-BIRLS NPRC VA-BIRLS Nosologist used death certificate from VA files, federal records centers, or state vital offices ICD8 80
Retrospective Cohort Investigations
Fett et al. 1984 [42] Vietnam Australian national military service records Australian national military service records 1. State & territory death registers
2. Electoral records
3. Arrival & departure records
4. Army records
5. Driver license records
6. Police/correction records
7. Welfare/credit records
Nosologist used death certificate supplemented with medical records, autopsy reports, legal reports, & coroner findings ICD8 96
Boyle et al. 1987 [9] Vietnam NPRC NPRC 1. VA-BIRLS
2. SSA
3. IRS
4. NDI
5. Army files
6. Interviews
Nosologist used death certificate ICD8
ICD9
92
Thomas et al. 1991 [23] Vietnam 1. VN group provided by respective services (see conflict zone status)
2. NVN group: Army-morning reports from 90 facilities; all other services-random sample of women never serving in VN
Provided by respective Services:
1. Army-morning reports from 91 VN facilities
2. Navy-muster rolls of the 4 VN naval facilities
3. Air Force-list of all women serving in VN
4. Marines-list of all women serving in VN
1. VA-BIRLS
3. SSA
4. IRS
5. NDI
6. Military Records
Nosologist used death certificate from VA files or state vital records offices ICD8 88
Watanabe et al. 1995 [25] Vietnam Marine Corps file of all Marines on active duty NPRC VA-BIRLS Nosologist used death certificate from VA files, federal records centers, or state vital offices ICD8 84
Dalager & Kang 1997 [27] Vietnam 1. DMDC (Chemical MOS)
2. Army Chemical School class rosters
Morning reports of chemical units in VN 1. VA-BIRLS
2. SSA
3. NDI
Nosologist used death certificate from VA files, federal records centers, or state vital offices ICD9 85
Boehmer et al. 2004 [29] Vietnam NPRC NPRC 1. VA-BIRLS
2. SSA
3. NDI Plus
1. NDI Plus
2. Nosologist used death certificate if cause of death not in NDI Plus
ICD9
(with NCHS modifications)
93
Cypel & Kang 2008 [51] Vietnam Rosters & personnel records from previous studies [23, 27] Rosters & personnel records from previous studies [23, 27] 1. VA-BIRLS
2. SSA
1. NDI Plus
2. Nosologist used death certificate from VA files or federal records center
ICD9 82
Kang & Bullman 1996 [28] Gulf DMDC DMDC 1. VA-BIRLS
2. SSA
Nosologist used death certificate from VA files or state vital offices ICD9 89
Kang & Bullman 2001 [57] Gulf DMDC DMDC 1. VA-BIRLS
2. SSA
Nosologist used death certificate from VA files, federal records centers or NDI ICD9 87
MacFarlane et al. 2000 [32] Gulf UK Ministry of Defense UK Ministry of Defense Office for National Statistics, National Health Service Central Registers 1. Office for National Statistics performed coding
2. Defense Analytical Service Agency
3. Military sources in country of death
ICD9 83
MacFarlane et al. 2005 [59] Gulf UK Ministry of Defense UK Ministry of Defense Office for National Statistics, National Health Service Central Register Office for National Statistics performed coding ICD10 83
Sim et al. 2003 [61] Gulf Australian Defense Force Australian Department of Veterans Affairs Nominal Roll for the Gulf War Australian Institute of Health & Welfare NDI As coded in Australian NDI ICD9 (1990–1996)
ICD10 (1997–2000)
86
  1. aAbbreviations in table: VA-BIRLS = Veterans Administration-Beneficiary Identification and Record Locator Subsystem; NPRS = National Personnel Records System; DMDC = Defense Manpower Data Center; SSA = Social Security Administration; IRS = Internal Revenue Service; NDI = National Death Index; VA = Veterans Administration; NCHS = National Center for Health Statistics; VN = Vietnam veteran; NVA = not Vietnam veteran; MOS = military occupational specialty; DD = Department of Defense; MA = Massachusetts; MI = Michigan; WI = Wisconsin; UK = United Kingdom
  2. bBonus lists contain Vietnam-era service members who applied for and received money for service in the Vietnam era.
  3. cICD = International Classification of Diseases. The number after "ICD" indicates the codebook revision