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Table 5 Epidemiological studies from the UK and Ireland- injuries in the general population

From: A review of injury epidemiology in the UK and Europe: some methodological considerations in constructing rates

Author and date Type of study/data source Population
(denominator)/size
Level of severity Epidemiological observation Major findings Epidemiological shortcomings
Gorman et al., 1999 [61] descriptive study/St John's hospital A&E data general population/44224
(residents EH45)
Livingston, England
A&E proportions by age, gender, type and location of injury; rates by age, gender, deprivation (Carstairs Depcat), eye injury data by location and type 1995–1996 19620/100,000 attendance rate
Evidence of injury association with deprivation: 20910/100,000 vs. 16630/100,000 most deprived vs. most affluent Depcat and travel distance: 21480/100,000 i.e. highest attendance rate in the Depcat 4 were the hospital is located
No information on severity of injury; one geographical region
Cryer et al., 1996 [59] descriptive study/Office for Population Censuses Surveys; South East Thames Regional Health Authority hospital data general population/3.67 million
Kent, East Sussex, South East London, England
deaths, hospitalization proportions of deaths by injury location; rates by age, gender, cause, ICD code A comprehensive picture (1988–1991) on the epidemiology of injury, priority setting
35/100,000 crude death rate/1057.5/100,000 hospitalisation rate; admissions by nature of injury: fracture limb 27%, poisoning 14%, intracranial injury 11%
No information on severity; one geographical region
Gorman et al., 1995 [64] descriptive study/Coroner's data; Home Office data; A&E, ITU, theatre registers general population/3.2 million
Mersey Region and North Wales, UK
deaths, hospitalization and A&E proportions and rates by age, cause, ISS, injury parameters (e.g., GCS, systolic blood pressure), hospital, outcome (died/alive) A Level I Trauma Centre (American-style) might be not sustained by blunt injury incidence (ISS>15) in region i.e. 19/100,000 for patients arriving alive at hospital 1989/1990 Only injuries ISS >15
Lecky et al., 2000 [65] descriptive study/TARN patients/91602
England, Wales, Northern Ireland
deaths, hospitalization proportions by cause, process of care (prehospital timing), trends in odds of deaths, Ws*, regression (odds of deaths – Revised Trauma Score, ISS) 6% statistical significant gradual decline in case mix adjusted odds of deaths 1989–1997
RTC 36.3%, falls 46.5%
Trauma registry not whole population used as denominator; non-thermal blunt trauma; pre-hospital deaths not available
Lecky et al., 2002 [66] descriptive study/TARN patients/129979
England, Wales, Northern Ireland
deaths, hospitalization proportions by age, gender, ISS, process of care (seniority of doctors), trends in odds of deaths, Ws*, regression (odds of deaths – Revised Trauma Score, ISS) No significant change in case mix adjusted odds of death 1994–2000 (p = 0.35)
6.2% death outcome
Trauma registry not whole population as denominator; non-thermal blunt trauma pre-hospital deaths not available
  1. *Ws provides a measure of excess survivors or deaths per 100 patients treated at each site (hospital)