Skip to main content

Table 3 Population health information available in the public domain on the leading causes of disease burden in India.*

From: Essential health information available for India in the public domain on the internet

Disease or health condition
(% of total DALYs lost in 2002 in India [15])
Category Information available Lowest geographical level available Comments
1. Perinatal conditions
(9.7%)
Mortality Perinatal mortality rate [23, 5860]† State Based on data from sample registration system and large scale household survey ‡ No cause of perinatal death data.
  Morbidity & health status Prevalence of low birth weight [38, 58, 59, 61] District Based on data from large scale household survey‡
  Risk factors Anaemia among women [58, 59, 62] District Most estimates based on data from large scale household survey‡
   Underweight among women [34, 58, 59] State  
   Contraception non-use [38, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Birth spacing [5860] State  
   Number of children ever born 5 or more [5861, 63] District  
   Antenatal care received [33, 34, 38, 41, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Skilled birth attendance [33, 34, 38, 41, 5861, 63] District  
   Low birth weight [38, 58, 59, 61] District  
   Prevalence of postpartum complications [5861, 63] District  
  Service provision Contraception coverage [38, 43, 5861, 63] District Most estimates based on data from large scale household survey‡
   Antenatal care coverage [33, 34, 38, 41, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Women receiving iron supplementation [38, 41, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Skilled birth attendance coverage [33, 34, 38, 41, 5861, 63] District  
   Postnatal care coverage [33, 38, 41, 58, 59] State  
2. Lower respiratory tract infections
(8.5%)
Mortality None*   
  Morbidity & health status Prevalence of cough in children [34, 38, 5861, 63] State Based on data from large scale household surveys‡
  Risk factors Type of cooking fuel used [19, 34, 38, 40, 5860, 63] District Most estimates based on large scale household surveys‡
   Tobacco smoking [34, 42, 53, 58] State  
   Childhood underweight [5860, 62] State  
   Breastfeeding practices [38, 5861, 63] District  
  Service provision Treatment of childhood cough [34, 38, 5861, 63] State Based on data from large scale household surveys‡
3. Ischaemic heart disease
(5.1%)
Mortality Percent of adult deaths attributed to chest pain [34] National Estimate based on a small sample of verbal autopsy on sibling deaths§
  Morbidity & health status Self-reported diagnosis with ischaemic heart disease [34] State|| Estimate based on household survey conducted in 6 states||
   Self-reported hospitalisations for heart disease [33] National  
  Risk factors Prevalence of overweight & obesity [34, 58] State Most risk factors have an estimate based on a large scale household survey‡
'Lack of physical activity' measured by household survey conducted in 6 states||
   Tobacco & alcohol use [34, 42, 53, 58] State  
   Fruit and vegetable intake [32, 34, 58, 59] State  
   Lack of physical activity [34] State||  
   Self-reported diagnosis of diabetes [34, 58] State  
  Service provision Self-reported treatment of disease [34] State|| Estimate based on household survey conducted in 6 states||
4. Diarrhoeal diseases (5.1%) Mortality Percent of adult deaths attributed to diarrhoea [34] National Estimate based on a small sample of verbal autopsy on sibling deaths§
  Morbidity & health status Prevalence of diarrhoea in children [34, 38, 5861, 63] State Most estimates based on data from large scale household surveys‡
   Self-reported hospitalisation for diarrhoea [33] National  
  Risk factors Access to clean water and sanitation [19, 3335, 3741, 5860, 63, 64] District Most estimates based on data from large scale household surveys‡
   Prevalence of childhood underweight [5860, 62] State  
   Vitamin A deficiency in children [38] State  
   Percentage of children receiving food rich in vitamin A in last 24 hrs [58] State  
   Breastfeeding practices [38, 58, 63] District  
  Service provision Treatment of childhood diarrhoea [38, 5861, 63] State Most estimates based on large scale household surveys‡
   Child vitamin A supplementation [38, 43, 58, 59, 61, 63] District  
5. Unipolar depression
(4.9%)
Morbidity & health status Self-reported diagnosis of depression [34] State|| Estimate based on household survey conducted in 6 states||
  Risk factors Alcohol use [34, 53, 58] State Both risk factors estimated by at least one large scale household survey‡
   Prevalence of women who experienced childhood sexual abuse [58] National  
  Service provision Self-reported treatment coverage [34] State|| Estimate based on household survey conducted in 6 states||
6. HIV/AIDS
(3.4%)¶
Mortality None*   
  Morbidity & health status HIV prevalence [8, 58] State Estimate based on sentinel surveillance and large scale household survey‡
  Risk factors Unsafe sex [51, 58] State Both risk factors estimated by large scale household survey‡ Unsafe sex also estimated by behavioural surveillance
   Use of clean injections [58] State  
  Service provision Coverage of treatment with antiretrovirals [48, 65] State Estimates mostly based on large scale household surveys and behavioural surveillance‡
   HIV testing uptake [34, 51, 58] State  
   Condom use [34, 51, 58] State  
7. Maternal conditions
(2.9%)
Mortality Maternal mortality ratio [59, 60, 66] State Maternal mortality ratio and cause of death estimates based on sample registration system data
A large scale household survey has also estimated maternal mortality ratio‡
   Cause of maternal death [66] National  
   Percent of total female deaths attributed to maternal conditions [34] National  
  Morbidity & health status Prevalence of postpartum complications [58] State Both estimates based on large scale household survey‡
   Prevalence of delivery complications [63] State  
  Risk factors Anaemia among women [58, 59, 62] District Most estimates based on data from large scale household survey‡
   Underweight among women [34, 58, 59] State  
   Contraception non-use [38, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Birth spacing [5860] State  
   Number of children ever born 5 or more [5861, 63] District  
   Vitamin A deficiency in pregnant women [58, 61, 63] National  
   Antenatal care received [33, 34, 38, 41, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Skilled birth attendance [33, 34, 38, 41, 5861, 63] District  
   Low birth weight [38, 58, 59, 61] District  
   Prevalence of postpartum complications [5861, 63] District  
  Service provision Contraception coverage [38, 43, 5861, 63] District Most estimates based on data from large scale household survey‡
   Antenatal care coverage [33, 34, 38, 41, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Women receiving iron supplementation [38, 41, 43, 5861, 63] District  
   Skilled birth attendance coverage [33, 34, 38, 41, 5861, 63] District  
   Postnatal care coverage [33, 38, 41, 58, 59] State  
8. Tuberculosis (2.8%) Mortality Percent of adult deaths attributed to tuberculosis [34] National Estimate based on a small sample of verbal autopsy on sibling deaths§
  Morbidity & health status Self-reported tuberculosis diagnosis [34, 5860, 63] State Most estimates based on large scale household surveys‡
   Self-reported hospitalisations for tuberculosis [33] National  
  Risk factors Tobacco & alcohol use [34, 42, 53, 58] State Most estimates based on large scale household surveys‡
   Type of cooking fuel used [19, 34, 38, 40, 58, 59, 63] District  
   Malnutrition [32, 34, 38, 58, 60, 62] District  
  Service provision Annualised case detection rate for new smear positive cases [45] District Most estimates based on tuberculosis surveillance system Self-reported tuberculosis treatment estimates mostly based on large scale household surveys‡
   Proportion of new sputum positive out of total new pulmonary cases [45] District  
   Smear conversion rate [45] District  
   Treatment success rate [45] District  
   Self-reported tuberculosis treatment [34, 58, 59, 63] State  
9. Cerebrovascular disease
(2.5%)
Mortality Percent of adult deaths attributed to paralysis [34] National Estimate based on a small sample of verbal autopsy on sibling deaths§
  Morbidity & health status None*   
  Risk factors Prevalence of overweight & obesity [34, 58] State Most risk factors have an estimate based on a large scale household survey‡
'Lack of physical activity' measured only by household survey conducted in 6 states|
   Tobacco & alcohol use [34, 42, 53, 58] State  
   Fruit and vegetable intake [32, 34, 58, 59] State  
   Lack of physical activity [34] State||  
   Self-reported diagnosis of diabetes [34, 58] State  
  Service provision None   
10. Cataract
(2.2%)
Morbidity & health status Prevalence of blindness [36, 60, 63] State Estimates based on both large scale household survey and household survey conducted in 6 states ‡ ||
   Previous diagnosis of cataracts [34] State||  
   Self-reported hospitalisations for cataracts [33] National  
  Risk factors Tobacco smoking [34, 42, 53, 58] State Estimates based on of large household surveys, household survey conducted in 6 states and sample registration system ‡ ||
   Self-reported diagnosis of diabetes [34, 58] State  
  Service provision Number of cataract operations performed [44] State Estimates based on household survey conducted in six states and service generated data||
   Those with previous diagnosis who have accessed surgery [34] State||  
11. Road traffic injuries
(2.1%)
Mortality Deaths from road traffic injuries [25] State Estimate based on surveillance
  Morbidity & health status Prevalence of road traffic injury in last one year [34] National Estimate based on household survey conducted in 6 states ||
  Risk factors Alcohol use [34, 53, 58] State Estimates based on both large scale household survey and household survey conducted in 6 states‡ ||
  Service provision Those with previous road traffic injury who had accessed emergency care [34] State|| Estimate based on household survey conducted in 6 states ||
  1. *Other than that generated by modelling and projections
  2. †Only the latest National Family Health Survey provides the perinatal mortality rate specifically, the earlier surveys and the sample registration system give the infant mortality rate.
  3. ‡The large scale household surveys include: National Family Health Survey (2005/6 survey sampled 109,041 households), Reproductive and Child Health District Level Household Survey (2002/4 survey sampled 620,107 households), National Sample Survey on morbidity, health care and the condition of the aged (sampled 73,868 households), National Sample Survey on nutritional intake in India (sampled 124,644 households) and United Nations Children's Fund Multiple Indicator Survey (sampled 119,305 households).
  4. §The World Health Survey examined a total of 1954 deaths of which cause of death was attributed to 55% of female and 61% of male deaths.
  5. ||The World Health Survey was conducted in six states and state level estimates available only for the states of Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; national pooled estimates also available; sampled 10,729 households.
  6. ¶ The estimated burden of HIV/AIDS in India was reduced recently to about half of the previous estimate based on new population-based data [67]; the estimated DALYs lost in 2002 shown in this table is therefore an overestimate.