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Table 3 Medical risk factors – surgery

From: A case-control study of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Switzerland: analysis of potential risk factors with regard to an increased CJD incidence in the years 2001–2004

     comparison with all control subjects
Risk factor n
total
mean (SD) or % crude estimate age and sex adjusted estimate age, sex and education adjusted estimate
   cases n = 69 controls
n = 224
OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
surgery, ever 292 94.1 95.1 0.83 (0.25–2.68) 0.751 0.94 (0.28–3.13) 0.921 0.99 (0.29–3.37) 0.984
number of operations 292 3.04 (1.71) 4.33 (2.76) 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 0.260 0.94 (0.82–1.08) 0.377 0.94 (0.82–1.09) 0.410
neurological surgery 289 10.8 7.6 1.47 (0.58–3.71) 0.416 1.51 (0.59–3.82) 0.388 1.24 (0.46–3.33) 0.672
neurological surgery (> 1980) 289 4.6 1.8 2.66 (0.58–12.21) 0.208 2.92 (0.63–13.60) 0.173 2.26 (0.39–13.04) 0.362
ophthalmological surgery 289 15.4 20.5 0.70 (0.33–1.49) 0.357 0.72 (0.33–1.59) 0.417 0.79 (0.35–1.78) 0.574
ophthalmological surgery (> 1980) 289 15.4 8.5 1.96 (0.86–4.46) 0.108 2.23 (0.94–5.28) 0.068 2.67 (1.10–6.49) 0.030
abdominal surgery 288 35.9 50.5 0.55 (0.31–0.98) 0.042 0.56 (0.31–1.01) 0.054 0.53 (0.29–0.98) 0.041
abdominal surgery (> 1980) 288 25.0 18.8 1.44 (0.75–2.79) 0.273 1.49 (0.77–2.88) 0.241 1.44 (0.72–2.85) 0.300
appendectomy 292 22.1 37.5 0.47 (0.25–0.89) 0.020 0.49 (0.26–0.94) 0.032 0.55 (0.28–1.05) 0.071
appendectomy (> 1980) 292 4.4 22.7 0.16 (0.05–0.52) 0.002 0.16 (0.05–0.54) 0.003 0.16 (0.05–0.55) 0.003
gastro- or colonoscopy 285 24.6 44.2 0.41 (0.22–0.78) 0.007 0.43 (0.22–0.81) 0.010 0.45 (0.23–0.87) 0.017
gastro-/colonoscopy (> 1980) 285 9.8 16.5 0.55 (0.22–1.37) 0.201 0.58 (0.23–1.46) 0.250 0.59 (0.23–1.49) 0.260
gynaecological surgery1 63 50.0 69.2 0.44 (0.16–1.27) 0.130 0.43 (0.15–1.25) 0.121 0.48 (0.16–1.45) 0.194
gynaecological surgery (> 1980)1 63 25.0 33.3 0.67 (0.21–2.08) 0.485 0.57 (0.17–1.94) 0.371 0.77 (0.21–2.80) 0.694
orthopaedic surgery 293 52.2 20.5 4.22 (2.38–7.49) 0.000 4.41 (2.47–7.89) 0.000 4.77 (2.60–8.83) 0.000
orthopaedic surgery (> 1980) 293 44.9 20.1 3.25 (1.82–5.77) 0.000 3.39 (1.89–6.08) 0.000 3.55 (1.94–6.49) 0.000
tonsillectomy 292 35.3 36.6 0.94 (0.54–1.66) 0.844 0.93 (0.53–1.65) 0.806 1.04 (0.58–1.88) 0.889
tonsillectomy (> 1980) 292 2.9 23.7 0.10 (0.02–0.41) 0.002 0.10 (0.02–0.40) 0.001 0.05 (0.01–0.36) 0.003
organ transplantation 292 1.5 0.5 3.33 (0.21–53.93) 0.397 3.36 (0.20–55.81) 0.398 2.69 (0.16–45.67) 0.494
  1. 1) female subjects, GP controls only