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Table 1 Results from recent studies

From: Hip fractures and area level socioeconomic conditions: a population-based study

Study Socioeconomic (SE) variable Association between SE variables and hip fracture risk
Individual-level studies
Vestergard 2006, Denmark - Social, co-morbidity variables; Significant association
  - income No association found
Peel 2007, Australia - Psychosocial determinants of healthy ageing Risk decrease
Area-level studies
West 2004, UK Townsend Score: social deprivation No association found
Jones 2004, UK Townsend Score: social deprivation Risk increase
Kaastad 1998, Oslo (Norway) - Urban vs. rural Risk increase
  - poor socioeconomic conditions, high mortality Risk increase
Sanders 2002, Australia Urban vs. rural Risk increase
Bacon 2000, USA Lower income Risk increase
Individual- and area-level studies
Reimers 2007, Sweden Individual-level:  
  -marital status: unmarried Risk increase
  -county of birth: outside Sweden Risk decrease
  Area-level:  
  - low economic status (high proportion of social welfare, unemployment, low-wage earners, single parent families) Risk increase
  - low social status (high proportion of low educated subjects, high population density, low car ownership) Risk decrease