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Table 4 Socioeconomic gradients in health-risk behaviour of females

From: Social inequalities in changes in health-related behaviour among Slovak adolescents aged between 15 and 19: A longitudinal study

Smoking   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI p model 2 OR 95 % CI p model 3 OR 95 % CI p
Respondents' education level Grammar 14.4 38.4 0.000 1    1    1   
  Specialised 17.5 40.5 0.000 1.27 (0.71–2.25)   1.10 (0.71–1.68)   1.04 (0.66–1.63)  
  Apprentice 22.9 45.9 0.000 1.77 (0.93–3.37)   1.36 (0.82–2.25)   1.19 (0.70–2.03)  
Current employment status Student 14.3 35.4 0.000 1   2 1   2 1   2
  Employed 18.9 50.7 0.000 1.40 (0.72–2.73)   1.88 (1.19–3.15)   1.84 (1.06–3.17)  
  Unemployed 26.3 50.0 0.000 2.14 (1.26–3.64)   1.83 (1.18–2.83)   1.55 (0.97–2.48)  
Parents' highest education level High 18.3 48.1 0.000 1    1   2 1   2
  Medium 18.7 38.8 0.000 1.03 (0.58–1.80)   0.65 (0.42–1.01)   0.61 (0.38–0.98)  
  Low 14.8 37.0 0.000 0.77 (0.39–1.54)   0.59 (0.34–0.99)   0.59 (0.34–1.03)  
Parents' highest occupational level High 20.1 49.6 0.000 1    1    1   
  Medium 17.4 39.0 0.000 0.84 (0.47–1.48)   0.68 (0.43–1.08)   0.69 (0.42–1.12)  
  Low 16.7 36.5 0.000 0.79 (0.44–1.43)   0.63 (0.40–1.01)   0.64 (0.39–1.06)  
Alcohol consumption   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI   model 2 OR 95 % CI   model 3 OR 95 % CI  
Respondents' education level Grammar 9.6 24.7 0.001 1    1   2 1   2
  Specialised 9.2 18.9 0.002 0.96 (0.47–1.95)   0.71 (0.43–1.17)   0.72 (0.43–1.19)  
  Apprentice 6.4 11.0 0.332 0.65 (0.25–1.66)   0.38 (0.19–0.77)   0.39 (0.19–0.78)  
Current employment status Student 10.2 19.1 0.002 1    1    1   
  Employed 2.7 21.6 0.001 0.24 (0.06–1.05)   1.17 (0.63–2.18)   1.24 (0.66–2.32)  
  Unemployed 8.8 16.7 0.078 0.85 (0.40–1.79)   0.85 (0.48–1.50)   0.85 (0.48–1.52)  
Parents highest education level High 14.2 25.4 0.021 1    1 2   1   2
  Medium 7.3 19.2 0.001 0.48 (0.23–0.97)   0.59 (0.35–0.99)   0.61 (0.36–1.03)  
  Low 6.1 13.6 0.096 0.39 (0.16–1.01)   0.41 (0.21–0.81)   0.43 (0.22–0.85)  
Parents highest occupational level High 14.9 26.7 0.040 1   2 1   2 1   
  Medium 5.6 17.6 0.000 0.34 (0.15–0.75)   0.70 (0.41–1.20)   0.74 (0.43–1.28)  
  Low 7.4 13.0 0.089 0.46 (0.21–0.97)   0.46 (0.25–0.84)   0.48 (0.27–0.88)  
Marijuana use   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI   model 2 OR 95 % CI   model 3 OR 95 % CI  
Respondents' education level Grammar 4.8 32.2 0.000 1    1    1   
  Specialised 4.8 28.2 0.000 1.01 (0.38–2.66)   0.83 (0.53–1.30)   0.82 (0.51–1.30)  
  Apprentice 6.5 22.0 0.000 1.38 (0.47–4.04)   0.60 (0.34–1.05)   0.55 (0.30–1.04)  
Current employment status Student 5.1 29.3 0.000 1    1    1   
  Employed 1.4 27.4 0.000 0.26 (0.33–1.96)   0.91 (0.52–1.62)   1.00 (0.56–1.79)  
  Unemployed 8.0 25.4 0.000 1.61 (0.68–3.79)   0.84 (0.51–1.35)   0.76 (0.45–1.27)  
Parents highest education level High 5.8 38.1 0.000 1    1   2 1   
  Medium 4.5 24.2 0.000 0.76 (0.29–2.00)   0.51 (0.32–0.81)   0.50 (0.31–0.81)  
  Low 6.1 23.6 0.000 1.06 (0.36–3.11)   0.42 (0.24–0.74)   0.39 (0.21–0.71)  
Parents highest occupational level High 6.7 40.0 0.000 1    1   2 1   2
  Medium 5.1 25.3 0.000 0.74 (0.29–1.92)   0.52 (0.32–0.85)   0.52 (0.31–0.86)  
  Low 4.3 21.7 0.000 0.63 (0.23–1.73)   0.50 (0.30–0.83)   0.51 (0.30–0.86)  
Insufficient physical activity   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI   model 2 OR 95 % CI   model 3 OR 95 % CI  
Respondents' education level Grammar 25.3 36.3 0.038 1    1   2 1   2
  Specialised 23.7 42.1 0.000 0.91 (0.57–1.48)   1.28 (0.83–1.96)   1.32 (0.85–2.05)  
  Apprentice 33.9 56.0 0.001 1.51 (0.88–2.61)   2.23 (1.34–3.70)   2.13 (1.26–3.58)  
Current employment status Student 23.8 38.8 0.000 1    1    1   
  Employed 28.4 50.0 0.006 1.27 (0.72–2.25)   1.58 (0.95–2.64) 2 1.54 (0.91–2.61)  
  Unemployed 31.6 51.8 0.001 1.48 (0.92–2.38)   1.69 (1.10–2.62)   1.60 (1.02–2.51)  
Parents' highest education level High 24.2 36.6 0.067 1    1   2 1   2
  Medium 27.2 43.8 0.000 1.18 (0.71–1.94)   1.51 (0.96–2.37)   1.49 (0.93–2.38)  
  Low 26.1 50.0 0.000 1.11 (0.61–2.00)   2.10 (1.24–3.56)   2.15 (1.25–4.71)  
Parents' highest occupational level High 24.6 34.2 0.021 1    1   2 1   2
  Medium 30.9 43.9 0.008 1.37 (0.83–2.27)   1.35 (0.85–2.43)   1.28 (0.80–2.06)  
  Low 22.8 52.2 0.000 0.91 (0.53–1.55)   1.74 (1.09–2.77)   1.83 (1.13–2.97)  
  1. 1) McNemar test
  2. 2) text in bold indicate that overall a variable contributes to the logistic model at p < 0.05
  3. Model 1 effect of SEP on HRB at T1
  4. Model 2 effect of SEP on HRB at T2
  5. Model 3 effect of SEP on HRB at T2 controlled for HRB at T1
  6. OR – odds ratio