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Table 3 Socioeconomic gradients in health-risk behaviour of males

From: Social inequalities in changes in health-related behaviour among Slovak adolescents aged between 15 and 19: A longitudinal study

Smoking   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI p model 2 OR 95 % CI p model 3 OR 95 % CI p
Respondents' education level Grammar 3.0 23.8 0.000 1   2 1   2 1   
  Specialised 18.3 36.4 0.000 7.32 (2.16–24.7)   1.85 (1.04–3.20)   1.27 (0.69–2.31)  
  Apprentice 40.6 50.0 0.064 22.30 (6.63–74.9)   3.21 (1.77–5.82)   1.34 (0.68–2.66)  
Current employment status Student 13.7 31.1 0.000 1   2 1   2 1   
  Employed 31.3 59.4 0.004 2.87 (1.26–6.55)   3.23 (1.53–6.88)   2.65 (1.15–6.13)  
  Unemployed 43.8 50.0 0.481 4.90 (2.66–8.99)   2.21 (1.27–3.87)   1.11 (0.56–2.18)  
Parents' highest education level High 12.7 28.9 0.001 1   2 1   2 1   
  Medium 21.2 39.0 0.000 1.84 (0.93–3.64)   1.78 (1.04–2.98)   1.57 (0.87–2.82)  
  Low 28.8 41.2 0.064 2.77 (1.28–5.98)   1.84 (0.96–3.49)   1.30 (0.63–2.71)  
Parents' highest occupational level High 12.4 27.5 0.000 1   2 1    1   
  Medium 23.0 40.0 0.000 2.11 (1.07–4.13)   1.59 (0.93–2.65)   1.27 (0.71–2.29)  
  Low 24.7 41.1 0.003 2.32 (1.14–4.73)   1.72 (0.98–3.03)   1.34 (0.71–2.54)  
Alcohol consumption   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI   model 2 OR 95 % CI   model 3 OR 95 % CI  
Respondents' education level Grammar 11.9 26.7 0.000 1    1    1   
  Specialised 14.3 33.8 0.000 1.24 (0.58–2.63)   1.40 (0.80–2.43)   1.37 (0.78–2.41)  
  Apprentice 12.3 37.7 0.000 1.04 (0.44–2.39)   1.66 (0.92–3.00)   1.68 (0.51–5.58)  
Current employment status Student 12.9 29.9 0.000 1    1    1   
  Employed 6.3 46.9 0.000 0.45 (0.10–1.97)   2.07 (0.98–4.34)   2.25 (0.99–4.77)  
  Unemployed 17.2 39.1 0.000 1.40 (0.67–2.95)   1.50 (0.85–2.65)   1.45 (0.82–2.58)  
Parents highest education level High 8.8 32.2 0.000 1    1    1   
  Medium 14.6 31.6 0.000 1.77 (0.80–3.92)   1.00 (0.60–1.68)   0.94 (0.56–1.59)  
  Low 15.1 34.0 0.004 1.83 (0.72–4.68)   1.09 (0.58–2.06)   1.02 (0.53–1.95)  
Parents highest occupational level High 9.9 32.4 0.000 1    1    1   
  Medium 16.2 32.4 0.002 1.75 (0.82–3.71)   0.97 (0.58–1.64)   0.90 (0.53–1.54)  
  Low 9.3 34.2 0.000 0.93 (0.37–2.31)   1.08 (0.62–1.91)   1.09 (0.62–1.94)  
Marijuana use   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI   model 2 OR 95 % CI   model 3 OR 95 % CI  
Respondents' education level Grammar 1.0 25.7 0.009 1   2 1   2 1   
  Specialised 2.6 39.6 0.000 2.67 (0.29–24.2)   1.89 (1.09–3.28)   1.84 (1.05–3.22)  
  Apprentice 9.4 42.9 0.000 10.42 (1.31–82.9)   2.16 (1.20–3.90)   1.79 (0.97–3.29)  
Current employment status Student 3.8 33.0 0.000 1    1   2 1   
  Employed 3.1 43.8 0.000 0.82 (0.99–4.77)   1.58 (0.75–3.33)   1.65 (0.77–3.52)  
  Unemployed 6.3 49.2 0.000 1.69 (0.51–5.58)   1.97 (1.13–3.44)   1.93 (1.00–3.43)  
Parents highest education level High 2.0 30.6 0.000 1    1    1   
  Medium 5.4 41.2 0.000 2.86 (0.61–13.3)   1.53 (0.91–2.55)   1.42 (0.84–2.41)  
  Low 2.7 35.4 0.000 1.41 (0.19–10.2)   1.30 (0.68–2.45)   1.28 (0.66–2.45)  
Parents highest occupational level High 2.5 30.4 0.000 1    1    1   
  Medium 5.1 40.0 0.000 2.13 (0.54–8.44)   1.59 (0.95–2.66)   1.52 (0.89–2.58)  
  Low 3.1 36.1 0.000 1.26 (0.25–6.36)   1.25 (0.70–2.20)   1.24 (0.69–2.21)  
Insufficient physical activity   T1% T2% Sig.1 model 1 OR 95 % CI   model 2 OR 95 % CI   model 3 OR 95 % CI  
Respondents' education level Grammar 5.0 21.8 0.001 1   2 1    1   
  Specialised 15.6 31.2 0.000 3.55 (1.31–9.63)   1.63 (0.91–2.91)   1.39 (0.76–2.53)  
  Apprentice 14.2 29.5 0.006 3.17 (1.11–9.06)   1.50 (0.80–2.83)   1.31 (0.68–2.50)  
Current employment status Student 11.4 27.0 0.000 1    1    1   
  Employed 15.6 34.4 0.046 1.44 (0.52–4.03)   1.42 (0.65–3.09)   1.35 (0.60–3.02)  
  Unemployed 14.1 29.7 0.031 1.28 (0.57–2.84)   1.14 (0.63–2.08)   1.10 (0.59–2.05)  
Parents' highest education level High 10.8 27.3 0.002 1    1    1   
  Medium 11.4 30.9 0.000 1.06 (0.49–2.30)   1.18 (0.69–2.04)   1.18 (0.68–2.06)  
  Low 15.1 22.9 0.006 1.47 (0.60–3.60)   0.91 (0.46–1.81)   0.84 (0.41–1.71)  
Parents' highest occupational level High 9.9 26.5 0.000 1    1    1   
  Medium 14.0 29.9 0.000 1.48 (0.68–3.18)   1.19 (0.69–2.05)   1.13 (0.65–1.96)  
  Low 11.3 24.7 0.021 1.16 (0.49–2.76)   0.79 (0.43–1.47)   0.76 (0.40–1.45)  
  1. 1) McNemar test
  2. 2) text in bold indicate that overall a variable contributes to the logistic model at p < 0.05
  3. Model 1 effect of SEP on HRB at T1; Model 2 effect of SEP on HRB at T2; Model 3 effect of SEP on HRB at T2 controlled for HRB at T1
  4. OR – odds ratio