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Table 2 Reported parental smoking habit and cotinine levels in children's urine (ng/mL) at 4 years

From: A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

Parental smoking status Urinary cotinine at 4 year (ng/mL)
  N Median Mean (SD) Range p-value
At 4 year:      
   No smoker 94 4.60 6.50 (6.68) 0.20 – 36.00 -
   Only father 64 6.45 10.57 (11.23) 1.10 – 57.40 0.004
   Only mother 52 16.30 27.78 (30.58) 2.60 – 170.20 <0.001
   Both mother and father 96 19.60 33.06 (41.47) 2.10 – 300.90 <0.001