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Table 1 Mean of sense of coherence (SOC), age adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) for drug imbursement due to diabetes during the follow-up of 18 years by confounding variables at baseline in initially healthy male employees

From: Sense of coherence and diabetes: A prospective occupational cohort study

Characteristic N Mean of SOC (95% CI) p-value No. of diabetes cases HR (95% CI)
Age at baseline (years)    <0.001   
   =<50 5058 64.30 (64.00–64.59)   254 1.00
   >50 769 65.90 (65.13–66.65)   59 1.73 (1.30–2.29)
Education    <0.001   
   Tertiary 806 67.05 (66.26–67.79)   40 1.00
   Secondary 2728 64.46 (64.05–64.87)   119 0.91 (0.63–1.30)
   Primary 2293 63.67 (63.22–64.11)   154 1.39 (0.98–1.97)
Marital status    <0.001   
   Married 4123 65.28 (64.95–65.62)   226 1.00
   Not married 1704 62.62 (62.09–63.15)   87 0.99 (0.77–1.28)
Psychological distress    <0.001   
   Low 4437 67.36 (67.08–67.64)   238 1.00
   High 1390 55.39 (54.89–55.89)   75 1.01 (0.78–1.31)
Self-rated health    <0.001   
   Good 5516 64.85 (64.57–65.13)   282 1.00
   Poor 311 58.36 (57.17–59.55)   31 1.98 (1.36–2.87)
Smoking status    <0.001   
   No 3696 64.77 (64.43–65.12)   183 1.00
   Yes 2131 64.04 (63.58–64.50)   130 1.37 (1.09–1.71)
Binge drinking*    <0.001   
   No 4881 65.19 (64.90–65.49)   242 1.00
   Yes 946 60.95 (60.27–61.63)   71 1.67 (1.28–2.18)
Physical activity †    <0.001   
   High or moderate 3608 65.10 (64.75–65.45)   165 1.00
   Low 2219 63.54 (63.09–63.99)   148 1.52 (1.22–1.90)
  1. * Frequency of binge drinking: No = excessive drinking leading to intoxication less than twice per month; Yes = excessive drinking leading to intoxication twice or more per month
  2. † Frequency of exercising: High or moderate = Once a week or more; Low = Less than once a week