24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years."/>
Skip to main content

Table 5 Adjusted heavy smoking prevalence estimates among the Polish immigrant smokers by country of purchase of cigarettes (n = 607)

From: Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

Adjusted Smoking Prevalence Purchase from Ireland Purchase from Poland 'p' values
Unadjusted 41.4% 42.6% p = 0.79
Age-sex adjusted 42.5% 42.7% p = 0.72
Adjusted for age, sex, Income 42.9% 47.8% p = 0.17
Adjusted for age, sex, Occupation and income 43.7% 47.3% p = 0.25
Adjusted for age, sex, Occupation, Income and Duration of stay in Ireland 43.9% 46.7% p = 0.42
Adjusted for age, sex, Occupation, duration of stay, Income and marital status 42.1% 46.1% p = 0.35
Adjusted for age, sex, Occupation, duration of stay Education, income, Marital status and Smoking age initiation 43.4% 45.5% p = 0.52