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Table 5 Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR, 95% CI) of multimorbidity and metabolic diseases by educational level and sex according to age groups among participants aged 50 to 75 years in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

From: The impact of education on risk factors and the occurrence of multimorbidity in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

  Men Women
Educational Level High Middle   Low   High Middle   Low  
  OR OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI OR OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI
Multimorbidity: yes 1           
Age <= 60 years at recruitment # 1 1.24 1.03–1.50 1.36 1.17–1.59 1 1.05 0.87–1.26 1.20 1.00–1.43
Age > 60 years at recruitment # 1 0.95 0.65–1.39 0.90 0.68–1.19 1 1.08 0.70–1.67 0.93 0.64–1.35
Metabolic diseases: yes 2           
Age <= 60 years at recruitment # 1 1.38 1.12–1.71 1.18 1.00–1.38 1 1.24 1.03–1.49 1.32 1.11–1.58
Age > 60 years at recruitment# 1 1.16 0.74–1.83 0.97 0.71–1.32 1 1.16 0.74–1.82 1.24 0.84–1.83
  1. § adjusted for BMI (continuous; kg/m2), fruit intake (continuous; g/day), vegetable intake (continuous, g/day), alcohol consumption (continuous; g/day), age (continuous; years, total physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active)
  2. adjusted for smoking status, fruit intake (continuous; g/day), vegetable intake (continuous; g/day), alcohol consumption (continuous; g/day), age (continuous years), combined total physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active)
  3. # adjusted for smoking status, BMI (continuous; kg/m2), fruit intake (continuous; g/day), vegetable intake (continuous; g/day), alcohol consumption (continuous; g/day), age (continuous years), combined total physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active)
  4. 1Presence of two or more of the prevalent chronic conditions mentioned in table 1
  5. 2Presence of hyperuricemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidemia