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Table 4 Age and multivariate adjusted odds (OR, 95% CI) and hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI) of multimorbidity, metabolic diseases, and mortality, including additional models adjusted for smoking status or BMI, by educational level among men and women aged 50 to 75 years in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

From: The impact of education on risk factors and the occurrence of multimorbidity in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

  Men Women
Educational level High Middle Low High Middle Low
  OR   OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI   OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI
Multimorbidity: yes 1            
Age-adjusted   1 1.32 1.12–1.55 1.43 1.28–1.61 1 1.13 0.97–1.33 1.33 1.18–1.57
Smoking status -adjusted *   1 1.34 1.14–1.58 1.46 1.30–1.64 1 1.14 0.97–1.34 1.38 1.20–1.60
BMI- adjusted **   1 1.23 1.05–1.45 1.24 1.10–1.40 1 1.05 0.89–1.23 1.12 0.96–1.30
Fully adjusted #   1 1.21 1.02–1.43 1.28 1.12–1.46 1 1.06 0.89–1.25 1.16 0.99–1.36
Metabolic diseases: yes 2            
Age-adjusted   1 1.48 1.23–1.77 1.38 1.22–1.57 1 1.35 1.15–1.59 1.64 1.42–1.90
Smoking status -adjusted *   1 1.51 1.26–1.81 1.41 1.25–1.61 1 1.36 1.16–1.60 1.67 1.44–1.93
BMI- adjusted **   1 1.34 1.11–1.61 1.09 0.96–1.25 1 1.21 1.03–1.42 1.25 1.18–1.46
Fully adjusted #   1 1.37 1.13–1.66 1.15 1.00–1.33 1 1.24 1.04–1.47 1.33 1.13–1.56
  HR   HR 95%-CI HR 95%-CI   HR 95%-CI HR 95%-CI
All-cause mortality: yes            
Age-adjusted   1 1.38 1.02–1.85 1.90 1.54–2.34 1 1.04 0.67–1.61 1.30 0.89–1.90
Smoking status -adjusted *   1 1.26 0.94–1.69 1.69 1.37–2.09 1 1.05 0.68–1.62 1.33 0.92–1.95
BMI- adjusted **   1 1.36 1.01–1.83 1.82 1.46–2.25 1 0.99 0.64–1.54 1.23 0.83–1.81
Fully adjusted #   1 1.26 0.91–1.74 1.60 1.25–2.05 1 1.32 0.78–2.22 1.49 0.92–2.41
  1. * adjusted for smoking status and age (continuous; years)
  2. ** adjusted for BMI (continuous; kg/m2), and age (continuous; years)
  3. # adjusted for smoking status, BMI (continuous; kg/m2), fruit intake (continuous; g/day), vegetable intake (continuous; g/day), alcohol consumption (continuous; g/day), age (continuous; years), combined total physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active)
  4. 1Presence of two or more of the prevalent chronic conditions mentioned in table 1
  5. 2Presence of prevalent metabolic diseases, including hyperuricemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidemia