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Table 2 Baseline characteristics by educational level and sex of participants aged 50 to 75 years in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

From: The impact of education on risk factors and the occurrence of multimorbidity in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

  Men Women
Educational level Low Middle High Low Middle High
N 3810 1065 2418 3492 1670 1322
Multimorbidity1: yes (%) 71.0 68.0 61.4 71.0 64.9 61.5
Metabolic disease2: yes (%) 81.1 81.3 74.6 78.7 73.4 66.4
Deceased (%) 10.1 6.8 5.0 4.0 2.9 2.8
Continuous variables Median (Q1, Q3)* Median (Q1, Q3)* Median (Q1, Q3)* Median (Q1, Q3)* Median (Q1, Q3)* Median (Q1, Q3)*
Age at recruitment (years) 58 (54, 61) 56 (53, 60) 56 (53, 59) 58 (54, 61) 56 (52, 60) 55 (52, 59)
Height (m) 173.30 (169.20, 177.50) 176.00 (171.80, 180.00) 177.00 (172.50, 181.00) 161.10 (157.10, 165.20) 163.60 (159.55, 167.75) 164.90 (161.00, 169.00)
Weight (kg) 83.30 (83.30, 91.40) 82.50 (75.70, 90.50) 81.20 (75.50, 90.00) 70.00 (63.00, 79.05) 67.25 (60.50, 75.60) 65.00 (59.00, 72.00)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.6 (25.6, 30.0) 26.7 (24.7, 29.1) 25.9 (24.1, 28.1) 26.9 (24.3, 30.3) 25.1 (22.7, 28.0) 23.9 (21.8, 26.6)
Total energy intake (kcal/d) 2036 (1678, 2488) 2006 (1672, 2432) 2072 (1725, 2467) 1603 (1316, 1935) 1608 (1350, 1938) 1677 (1406, 2000)
Fat intake (g/d) 74.10 (57.60, 95.97) 74.67 (58.37, 93.68) 75.06 (59.66, 95.02) 61.77 (48.64, 77.96) 61.81 (48.79, 76.42) 62.49 (50.48, 78.44)
Fruit consumption (g/d) 94.71 (57.64, 136.07) 95.86 (57.97, 147.56) 100.97 (66.16 156.21) 103.42 (81.05, 181.39) 109.20 (85.98, 194.81) 121.45 (91.43, 196.77)
Vegetable consumption (g/d) 99.27 (74.74, 131.09) 103.02 (78.33, 131.53) 108.72 (84.14, 140.74) 106.10 (81.29, 143.60) 110.02 (85.67, 146.44) 122,11 (93.19, 161.12)
Alcohol consumption (g/d) 18.13 (6.93, 39.77) 19.99 (7.80, 39.16) 20.93 (8.89, 38.97) 4.04 (1.06, 11.39) 6.89 (2.18, 17.31) 9.05 (2.80, 21.82)
Categorical variables % % % % % %
Smoking status       
Never smokers 29.34 30.99 33.75 63.83 54.37 49.55
Former smokers 48.35 47.79 52.23 20.36 29.46 35.33
Current Smokers 22.31 21.22 14.02 15.81 16.17 15.13
Combined total physical activity index       
Active 8.50 3.10 2.70 9.68 5.95 7.34
Moderately active 42.11 26.57 18.96 62.59 55.88 43.23
Moderately inactive 33.94 30.97 29.69 21.96 25.42 29.70
Inactive 15.44 39.36 48.65 5.76 12.75 19.72
  1. * Q1 Cut point of Quartile 1, Q3 Cut point of Quartile 3
  2. 1Presence of two or more of the he prevalent chronic conditions mentioned in table 1
  3. 2Presence of hyperuricemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidemia