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Table 8 Relationship between causes of death and socio-economic groups: Summary of the relationship between causes of death, female and male socio-economic groups with highest and (↑) and lowest (↓) mortality and potential determinants. Please refer to the text for a more detailed discussion.

From: Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

Cause of death Socio-economic group with highest/lowest mortality risk Potential determinates
Cardiovascular disease female farmhand ↑
female employer ↓
male military personnel ↓1
Risk factors (high blood pressure, smoking, physical inactivity and obesity) varying among female and male socio-economic groups
Lung cancer female service worker ↑
female farmer ↓
male farmer ↓1
Smoking
Prostate cancer male service worker ↑1 Low PSA screening
Breast cancer female white-collar worker ↑
female farmhand ↓
Access to screening, stage at diagnosis, reproductive history, age at first parturition, hormone replacement therapy
Overall respiratory disease female farmhand ↑
female white-collar worker ↓
male service worker ↑
male military personnel ↓
Smoking, air pollution, allergens
COPD female/male service worker ↑
female/male farmer ↓
Smoking, exposure to pollutants, allergies and asthma
Overall endocrine nutritional and metabolic disease/diabetes mellitus female farmhand ↑
female employer ↓
male service worker ↑
male military personnel ↓
Overweight, smoking, physical inactivity
  1. 1 With blue-collar worker as reference category no other group showed increased/decreased mortality risk