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Table 4 Odds ratios of alcohol-related inpatient care and/or death among fathers for paternity leave (> 0 days) versus no paternity leave (0 days), and for three categories of paternity leave (1–30, 31–90, > 90 days) versus no paternity leave (0 days); crude (original population and population without those having another child in 1979–80) and models I-IV (95% CI).

From: The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

  Odds ratios Crude Odds ratios Crude Odds ratios Model I Odds ratios Model II Odds ratios Model III Odds ratios Model IV
  Original male population Excluded: child 1979–80     
  n = 49,120 n = 38,031 n = 25,150 n = 25,150 n = 25,150 n = 25,150
Dichotomized:       
Paternity leave = 0 days
n = 19,341; alcohol harm = 799
1 1 1 1 1 1
Paternity leave > 0 days
n = 5,809; alcohol harm = 182
0.76 (0.68–0.86) 0.75 (0.66-0.87) 0.75 (0.64–0.89) 0.80 (0.68–0.95) 0.82 (0.69–0.99) 0.82 (0.68–0.99)
Categorized:       
Paternity leave = 0 days
n = 19,341; alcohol harm = 799
1 1 1 1 1 1
Paternity leave: 1–30 days
n = 3,114; alcohol harm = 99
0.79 (0.68–0.92) 0.78 (0.66–0.92) 0.77 (0.62–0.95) 0.80 (0.65–1.00) 0.82 (0.66–1.02) 0.82 (0.66–1.02)
Paternity leave: 31–90 days
n = 2,013; alcohol harm = 63
0.71 (0.58–0.86) 0.71 (0.57–0.88) 0.75 (0.58–0.97) 0.82 (0.63–1.07) 0.85 (0.64–1.13) 0.85 (0.64–1.13)
Paternity leave: > 90 days
n = 682; alcohol harm = 20
0.78 (0.58–1.06) 0.76 (0.54–1.06) 0.69 (0.44–1.09) 0.73 (0.46–1.15) 0.74 (0.45–1.23) 0.74 (0.45–1.2)
  1. Model I: adjustments for age, country of birth, and municipality (missing: 2,381)
  2. Model II: I + adjustments for income, occupational position, and type of work (missing: 5,626)
  3. Model III: II + adjustments for partner's age, country of birth, income, occupational position, type of work, and parental leave (missing: 12,881)
  4. Model IV: III + adjustments for partner's exposure (working hours) and the partner's outcome (alcohol-related care and/or death) (missing:12.881)