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Table 2 Diet, body measurements and physical activity levels among non-, low- and high consumers of sugar-added beverages of kindergarten children of Crete.

From: Sugar-added beverages consumption among kindergarten children of Crete: effects on nutritional status and risk of obesity

   Consumption of Sugar-added beverages   
   Non consumers Consumers   
    < 125 g/d 125–250 g/d > 250 g/d   
   Mean ± Standard Error (N) P -value P -value for trend
Nutrients       
   Energy (kcal) 1682 ± 20 (339) 1749 ± 24 (244) 1850 ± 29 (164) 1915 ± 38 (97) <0.001 <0.001
per 1000 kcal        
  Proteins (g) 37.1 ± 0.3 (339) 35.3 ± 0.4 (244) 34.6 ± 0.4 (164) 32.9 ± 0.6 (97) <0.001 <0.001
  Carbohydrates (g) 107 ± 1 (339) 111 ± 1 (244) 115 ± 1 (164) 122 ± 1 (97) <0.001 <0.001
  Saturated fat (g) 17.8 ± 0.2 (339) 17.5 ± 0.2 (244) 17.0 ± 0.2 (164) 15.9 ± 0.3 (97) <0.001 <0.001
  Mono-unsaturated fat (g) 19.5 ± 0.2 (339) 18.7 ± 0.2 (244) 18.6 ± 0.3 (164) 17.7 ± 0.4 (97) <0.001 <0.001
  Poly-unsaturated fat (g) 5.3 ± 0.1 (339) 5.2 ± 0.1 (244) 4.9 ± 0.1 (164) 5.1 ± 0.2 (97) 0.077 0.109
  Calcium (mg) 614 ± 9 (339) 581 ± 11 (244) 562 ± 13 (164) 491 ± 17 (97) <0.001 <0.001
  Vitamin A (μg) 400 ± 14 (339) 413 ± 17 (244) 349 ± 21 (164) 338 ± 27 (97) 0.021 0.010
  Vitamin E (mg) 3.5 ± 0.1 (339) 3.5 ± 0.1 (244) 3.3 ± 0.1 (164) 3.1 ± 0.1 (97) 0.078 0.010
  Vitamin C (mg) 54.2 ± 1.7 (339) 55.3 ± 2.0 (244) 68.6 ± 2.4 (164) 82.1 ± 3.2 (97) <0.001 <0.001
Food groups (g/day)       
   Cereals, rice, potatoes 167 ± 5 (339) 174 ± 6 (244) 186 ± 7 (164) 177 ± 9 (97) 0.156 0.198
   Fruits and Vegetables 214 ± 7 (319) 186 ± 8 (239) 189 ± 10 (161) 171 ± 13 (94) 0.008 0.007
   Milk and yogurt 336 ± 9 (336) 339 ± 12 (242) 327 ± 14 (162) 297 ± 18 (96) 0.238 0.048
   Cheese 28 ± 1 (291) 29 ± 1 (218) 29 ± 1 (153) 28 ± 1 (83) 0.978 0.699
   Red meat 52 ± 2 (293) 55 ± 3 (215) 52 ± 3 (153) 60 ± 4 (93) 0.261 0.103
   Olive oil 17 ± 1 (302) 14 ± 1 (222) 14 ± 1 (152) 13 ± 1 (86) 0.154 0.008
   Sugar and sweets (excluding sugar from sugar-added beverages) 22 ± 1 (248) 23 ± 2 (208) 26 ± 2 (129) 27 ± 3 (77) 0.066 0.011
   Snacks 27 ± 2 (165) 27 ± 2 (149) 29 ± 3 (90) 34 ± 3 (67) 0.232 0.041
Body measurements       
   Weight (kg) 22.4 ± 0.2 (308) 22.1 ± 0.3 (228) 22.7 ± 0.3 (156) 23.2 ± 0.4 (91) 0.258 0.057
   Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 16.6 ± 0.1(308) 16.4 ± 0.2 (228) 16.9 ± 0.2 (156) 17.4 ± 0.3 (91) 0.028 0.003
   Waist circumference (cm) 55.7 ± 0.3(308) 55.6 ± 0.4 (228) 56.4 ± 0.5 (156) 56.1 ± 0.6 (91) 0.570 0.335
Physical activity       
   MVPA (mins/week) 63 ± 6 (326) 53 ± 6 (242) 68 ± 8 (163) 44 ± 10 (96) 0.137 0.246
  1. Analysis of Covariance (Heterogeneity was tested by Levene's test). Gender, age and BMI were used as covariates in the analysis of nutrients and foods; gender, age, energy intake and birth weight were covariates in the analysis of body measurements; gender and age were covariates in the analysis of MVPA.