Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for herb use and TCAM use, univariate and multivariate analyses

From: Use of traditional complementary and alternative medicine for HIV patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

  Univariate analyses Multivariate analyses
  Herb use TCAM use Herb use TCAM use
  % OR (95% CI) P % OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Sex           
   Male (n = 180) 29.9 1.00 (reference)   42.9 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)  
   Female (n = 438) 29.3 0.97 (0.66–1.42) .86 54.8 1.61 (1.13–2.30) .008    1.23 (0.63–2.61) .501
Age in years   1.00 (0.98–1.02) .89   0.99 (0.97–1.01) .25     
Educational level           
   None (n = 42) 21.4 1.00 (ref)   45.2 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)  
   Primary (n = 446) 28.9 1.49 (0.69–3.21) .305 48.4 1.14 (0.60–2.15) .692    0.99 (0.33–3.03) .996
   Secondary/postsecondary (n = 126) 35.7 2.04 (0.90–4.64) .090 65.1 2.26 (1.11–4.59) .025    2.62 (0.77–8.87) .122
Residence           
   Urban (n = 227) 16.3 1.00 (ref)   40.5 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Rural (n = 388) 37.6 3.00 (2.06–4.66) .000 58.0 2.03 (1.45–2.83) .000 1.53 (0.84–2.79) .1.64 1.56 (0.84–1.99) .157
Religion           
   Christian (main stream) (n = 128) 21.1 1.00 (ref)   41.4 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Charismatic (n = 230) 27.0 1.38 (0.83–2.31) .220 53.5 1.63 (1.05–2.52) .029 0.88 (0.44–1.79) .726 1.23 (0.62–2.46) .597
   No religion (n = 106) 42.5 2.76 (1.56–4.90) .001 52.8 1.59 (0.94–2.66) .082 1.27 (0.53–3.03) .588 1.15 (0.55–1.88) .224
   African/traditional (n = 58) 29.3 1.55 (0.77–3.15) .224 32.8 0.69 (0.36–1.32) .263 1.30 (0.50–3.25) .594 0.35 (0.12–1.07) .66
Enough money to meet needs           
   Not at all (n = 294) 43.0 1.00 (ref)   63.2 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   A little (= 170) 19.4 0.32 (0.21–0.50) .000 48.2 0.54 (0.37–0.80) .002 0.53 (0.26–1.09) .083 1.37 (0.76–2.45) .293
   Moderately/mostly/completely (n = 140) 14.0 0.22 (0.13–0.36) .000 30.7 0.26 (0.17–0.39) .000 0.69 (0.29–1.65) .404 1.14 (0.60–2.17) .686
Main source of household income           
   Formal salary (n = 182) 29.1 1.00 (ref)   58.2 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Contribution by family members (n = 115) 15.7 0.45 (0.25–0.82) .009 25.2 0.24 (0.15–0.40) .000 0.61 (0.29–1.31) .207 0.32 (0.14–0.70) .005
   Government grant (n = 138) 39.9 1.61 (1.01–2.57) .045 58.0 0.99 (0.63–1.55) .961 1.62 (0.82–3.10) .164 0.89 (0.43–1.47) .745
   Grants/donations by private welfare (n = 87) 21.8 0.68 (0.37–1.24) .208 44.8 0.58 (0.35–0.98) .040 0.50 (0.20–1.24) .135 0.77 (0.19–0.84) .578
   No income (other than social grant) (n = 44) 54.5 2.92 (1.49–5.37) .002 88.6 5.59 (2.11–14.85) .001 0.24 (0.02–3.72) .309 1.45 (0.21–9.88) .706
Being on a disability grant (chronic illness including AIDS) (n = 128)           
   No 16.1 1.00 (ref)   27.6 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 32.0 2.46 (1.54–3.93) .000 72.7 6.98 (4.43–10.99) .000 3.42 (1.65–7.11) .001 7.85 (3.38–18.25) .000
Having a health insurance           
   Yes (n = 64) 28.1 1.00 (ref)   40.6 1.00 (ref)      
   No (n = 548) 30.0 1.09 (0.61–1.94) .76 52.8 1.64 (0.97–2.77) .066     
CD4 count   1.00 (0.99–1.00) .39   1.00 (1.00–1.01) .049    1.57 (0.70–3.55) .275
Time since HIV diagnosis           
   ≤ 1 year (n = 460) 28.9 1.00 (ref)   50.1 1.00 (ref)      
   > 1 and more years (n = 151) 28.7 1.01 (0.67–1.52) .95 52.0 0.93 (0.64–1.34) .69     
Number of clinic visits in past 6 months           
   Never or once (n = 116) 50.9 1.00 (ref)   69.0 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Twice (n = 147) 21.1 0.26 (0.15–0.44) .000 32.0 0.21 .000 0.64 (0.26–1.61) .159 0.66 (0.23–1.89) .443.
   Trice or more (n = 348) 25.6 0.51 (0.33–0.80) .000 53.2 0.51 .003 0.51 (0.23–1.12) .047 0.97 (0.39–2.42) 951
Number of HIV symptoms   1.00 (0.99–1.02) .64   1.03 (1.01–1.05) .001    2.26 (1.28–3.99) .005
Nagelkerke R Square        .19   .44